African American History aka Black History & History of Afrikans World Wide

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This Black History Month, we remember Amilcar Cabral, one of Africa's most influential socialist revolutionaries, military strategists and independence leaders.⁠

Cabral led the fight for the independence of Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde from Portuguese colonialism. As a committed pan-Africanist and socialist, Cabral fought for the independence for all of Portugal’s African colonies, while aiming to build a socialist bloc by unifying Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde. In the areas liberated during the war, Cabral's forces tried to build a socialist economy with central planning and cooperatives. Cabral, trained as an agronomist, pioneered social and agricultural programs to ensure both the supplies for the liberation army as well as the local people.⁠

Amilcar Cabral was assassinated only eight months before Guinea-Bissau's independence, shot by members of his own movement, allegedly influenced by the Portuguese intelligence services. Before his assassination, Amílcar Cabral was one of Africa’s leading anti-colonialists and the revolutionary war he led not only defeated Portuguese colonialism in Guinea Bissau and Cape Verde, it also helped spark the fall of Portugal’s fascist dictatorship and its entire empire and influenced struggles for liberation across Africa and beyond.⁠

(Photo via BikoFoundation on Twitter)
 

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ZANZIBAR WORKER / ZANZIBAR / TANZANIA
A young woman takes a break from her daily job of picking and harvesting seaweed in Zanzibar, Tanzania.

Photograph by Keri Oberly
 

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AFRICANS YOU SHOULD KNOW:

Muhumuza, a rebel leader and priestess, arrested by the Germans in 1908 and the British in 1911. She spent the last few decades of her life interned in Kampala, supported by four servants and selling her cows’ milk. The colonisers feared her influence and spirit medium fame, so she was never allowed to return to the southwest of Uganda. But that didn’t stop her from secretly initiating many visitors into the rituals of Nyabingi, the traditional goddess of fertility.
She was later described as:
“By dint of years of training, she has acquired a high falsetto voice and professes inability to walk normally, her method of position being on tip-toe in a crouching position with the aid of two sticks. The chiefs with scarcely an exception trembled whenever her look was directed towards them.”
 

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This is now in Abomey, the ancient capital of Dahomey. This is the statue of Behanzin, the last free king of Dahomey, pictured defying the French who were attempting to take over Dahomey. Dahomey was the largest kingdom in Benin, and in fact was the name of the country until the 70’s. The inscription, as far as bad french and broken letters let me translate, is something like: “I will never sign any treaty which could end the independence of the land of my ancestors.”
 

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OK. OK. You’ve had them long enough. It’s time to give them back, WITH INTEREST! The British stole many ancient African artifacts and then stated that the Africans had no history. The Benin Bronzes were stolen from Benin in West Africa and sold on all over the world. The British museum has benefited from this theft and actually makes money from the stolen goods. “Slave money”, bronze fittings for Portuguese sailing vessels which were used to buy slaves. The large piece paid for a man-slave, the small ones for children. From Benin.
 

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The story is two years old. I did a search of the mans name and didn't find it posted. Props to that man for getting back the family land.



Ugandan man becomes a lawyer to win family land back
Published3 April 2019
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Jordan Kinyera
IMAGE COPYRIGHTJORDAN KINYERA
image captionJordan Kinyera was six years old when the land dispute began
A Ugandan man, who was only six years old when his father lost his land in a legal dispute, has finally won it back 23 years later, after becoming a lawyer.
Jordan Kinyera went through 18 years of education and legal training before taking on the case.
On Monday, the High Court delivered a final judgement which ruled in his family's favour.
Mr Kinyera told BBC Newsday that the loss of the family land when he was aged six had changed his life.
"I made the decision to become a lawyer later in life but much of it was inspired by events I grew up witnessing, the circumstances and frustrations my family went through during the trial and how it affected us," Mr Kinyera said.
His father was sued by neighbours following a land dispute in 1996 and the case dragged on in court for more than two decades.

"My dad was retired, so he didn't have a lot of resources. He wasn't earning at that time. He was desperate and there is something dehumanising about being in a desperate situation and not being able to do something about it. That is what inspired me the most."
Mr Kinyera told the BBC that he was happy for his father, who he says hasn't planted a single seed or laid a single brick in 23 years.
"Justice delayed is justice denied. My father is 82 years and he can't do much with the land now. It's up to us children to pick up from where he left."
Presentational white space


Land disputes are widespread in Uganda. According to legal advocacy group Namati, they affect 33-50% of landholders.
Many internally displaced Ugandans who return to their home regions after having spent several years in camps, find themselves in land disputes, Mr Kinyera told the BBC. He represents a number of clients in such cases.

"The issue is so widespread that an entire branch of the high court is just dedicated to land disputes."
 

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Dr. Khalid Muhammad of the New Black Panther Nation. Patron Saint of the R.B.G. movement.
 

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Moses is a completely fake fictional character. His myth was a plagiarized account of the deeds of Pharaoh Ahmose (whom the Greeks called Amoses) of Waset (Luxor), who united the people of the Ancient Nile in 1550 bce and liberated the Nile Delta from occupation by the Hyksos, bringing about the era of a New Empire and the restoration of Kemet as the most powerful civilization on Earth.
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For his great deeds, he and his queen, Ahmose-Nefertari, is one of very few Kings and Queens in the history of Kemet to be posthumously deified centuries after his death.
 

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Mary S. Peake
American teacher



Mary Smith Peake, born Mary Smith Kelsey (1823 – February 22, 1862), was an American teacher, humanitarian and a member of the black elite in Hampton, best known for starting a school for the children of former slaves starting in the fall of 1861 under what became known as the Emancipation Oak tree in present-day Hampton, Virginia near Fort Monroe. The first teacher hired by the American Missionary Association, she was also associated with its later founding of Hampton University in 1868.

Early life and education
Mary Smith Kelsey was born free in Norfolk, Virginia. Her father was an Englishman "of rank and culture" and her mother was a free woman of color, described as light-skinned. When Mary was six, her mother sent her to Alexandria (then part of the District of Columbia) to attend school. Living with her aunt Mary Paine, Kelsey studied for about ten years.[1] The US Congress enacted a law prohibiting free people of color in the District of Columbia from being educated (as was the case in Virginia and several other southern states). (This was several years before Alexandria was retroceded to Virginia in 1846.) The new law closed all schools for free blacks in that city, as had happened in Virginia after the Nat Turner Rebellion of 1831


CareerEdit
In 1839, at age sixteen Mary Kelsey returned to live with her mother. Despite the risk, she secretly taught slaves and free blacks to read and write, which was prohibited by law. She believed education was important to the race. In 1847 her mother married Thompson Walker and the family moved to Hampton, where they bought a house. In the 1850s she secretly began teaching enslaved and free black Americans and she was one of a number of black women whose teaching was, a few years later, officially sanctioned by the Union army as the United States entered the Civil War.[2]


On September 17, 1861, Mary Smith Peake taught the first classes to African American children on the grounds of present-day Hampton University, under what became called the Emancipation Oak.




There Kelsey founded a women's charitable organization, called the Daughters of Zion, whose mission was to assist the poor and the sick. She supported herself chiefly by dressmaking and continued to teach in secret. Among her adult students was her stepfather Thompson Walker, who even more became a leader of the blacks in Hampton. In 1851 Kelsey married Thomas Peake, a freed slave who worked in the merchant marine.[2] They had a daughter named Hattie, whom they nicknamed "Daisy".

Soon the AMA provided Peake with Brown Cottage, long considered the first facility of Hampton Institute (and later Hampton University). Both children and adults were eager to learn: Mary Peake's school taught more than fifty children during the day and twenty adults at night.

Although seriously ill, Peake continued teaching. On Washington's birthday, February 22, 1862, Peake died of tuberculosis, which she had contracted before the war.

The historic Emancipation Oak still stands near the entrance to the campus of Hampton University in what is now the City of Hampton. It is designated a National Historic Landmark by the Department of the Interior and one of the 10 Great Trees of the World by the National Geographic Society.[4]
 

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Contraband (American Civil War)

Contraband was a term commonly used in the US military during the American Civil War to describe a new status for certain escaped slaves or those who affiliated with Union forces. In August 1861, the Union Army and the US Congress determined that the US would no longer return escaped slaves who went to Union lines, but they would be classified as "contraband of war," or captured enemy property. They used many as laborers to support Union efforts and soon began to pay wages. The former slaves set up camps near Union forces, and the army helped to support and educate both adults and children among the refugees. Thousands of men from these camps enlisted in the United States Colored Troops when recruitment started in 1863. At the end of the war, more than 100 contraband camps existed in the South, including the Freedmen's Colony of Roanoke Island, North Carolina, where 3500 former slaves worked to develop a self-sufficient community.

History
The status of Southern-owned slaves after Confederate states had engaged in the American Civil War became an issue early in 1861, not long after hostilities began. At Fort Monroe in Virginia's Hampton Roads, Major General Benjamin Butler, commander, learned that three slaves had made their way across Hampton Roads harbor from Confederate-occupied Norfolk County, and presented themselves at Union-held Fort Monroe. General Butler refused to return the escaped slaves to slaveholders who supported the Confederacy. This amounted to classifying them as "contraband," although the first use of that terminology in military records appears to have been by another officer. (see below).

The three slaves, Frank Baker, James Townsend, and Sheppard Mallory, had been leased by their masters to the Confederate Army to help construct defense batteries at Sewell's Point, across the mouth of Hampton Roads from the Union-held Fort Monroe. They escaped at night and rowed a skiff to Old Point Comfort, where they sought asylum at Fort Monroe.

Prior to the War, the owners of the slaves would have been legally entitled to request their return (as property) and likely would have done so under the federal 1850 Fugitive Slave Act. But, Virginia had declared (by secession) that it no longer was part of the United States. General Butler, who was educated as an attorney, took the position that, if Virginia considered itself a foreign power to the U.S., then he was under no obligation to return the three men; he would hold them as "contraband of war." When Confederate Major John B. Cary requested their return, Butler refused the request. Because the practice effectively recognized the seceded states as foreign entities, President Abraham Lincoln disapproved of it.

Gen. Butler did not pay the escaped slaves wages for work that they began to undertake, and he continued to refer to them as slaves. On September 25, 1861, the Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles issued a directive to give "persons of color, commonly known as contrabands", in the employment of the Union Navy pay at the rate of $10 per month and a full day's ration.[1] Three weeks later, the Union Army followed suit, paying male "contrabands" at Fort Monroe $8 a month and females $4, and specific to that command.[2]

In August, the US Congress passed the Confiscation Act of 1861, which declared that any property used by the Confederate military, including slaves, could be confiscated by Union forces. The next March, its Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves forbade returning slaves to Confederate masters or the military.



"Contraband" term first used by William Budd

General Butler's written statements and communications with the War Department requesting guidance on the issue of fugitive slaves did not use the term "contraband."[5] As late as August 9, 1861, he used the term "slaves" for fugitives who had come to Fort Monroe.[6]

On August 10, 1861, Acting Master William Budd of the gunboat USS Resolute first used the term in an official US military record.[7] As early as 1812, the term, "contraband" was used in general language to refer to illegally smuggled goods (including slaves)
 

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Deposition of William Chandler regarding an alleged slave ship, 3/17/1846
He testifies that the ship carried rations for enslaved people--a pound of rice and a pint of water per person per day--as well as a 4 ½’ high space for them to be transported, each sitting between the legs of the next person.



Transcription:

US MARCH 17. 1846
vs
Nathaniel J. Davis Captain of Schooner Patuxent
Under act 10 May 1800 2 & 3
Prohibiting carrying on slave trade
1 Story laws 780
William Chandler sworn- Is Lieutenant in U.S.N. - was attached in Sept. last to U.S.S. Yorktown - she was bound on her Southern cruise. Commander Bell was
Capt the Patuxent was first seen at Monrovia on or about the 25 Sept and was boarded by one of the Yorktown boats. She was only detained the usual time to make
the usual inquiries. I did not board her. Lt. [illegible] boarded her. She was again boarded the day afterwards at Cape Mount about 50 miles N.W. of Monrovia in the
afternoon or evening by the same officer. She was anchor close in with Cape Mount & the Yorktown at anchor near her - Comr Bell took possession of her & her paper, at about 9 A.M. of 27th Sept. I was ordered to the Patuxent about 1 P.M. to relieve Lt [illegible] & to take command. I took her to Monrovia the greater portion of the time in company with the Yorktown leaving Cape Mount on the 28th. I arriving at Monrovia on 1st Oct & leaving again to meet the Yorktown & again arriving on 2 Oct. Left Monrovia on 4 Oct & arrived at N.Y. 9 March. Were compelled to pull into Bermuda twice - Staid there 1st time one month repairing & the 2ᵈ time about 2 months during the whole time engaged in getting the vessel in a seaworthy condition. Davis the person now on examination was in command of the Patuxent when she was taken. I examined the vessel on the 29th but did not dis
[page 2]
turb the cargo or rather made a personal inspection. She was from 90 to 100 tons. I found 5 persons on board W. T. Davis the Master -- Thos l. Shaw the mate -- and Joseph Morrell, James C. .Clark & John Smith. -- The three men are now present. That is about the usual number for a vessel of that size in the mercht service. The men were very capable men & good seamen--
[left margin] Provisions [/left margin]I found a large quantity of provisions on board, beef, pork & bread. There was quite enough to 15 men for 35 days and more than enough beef. Some of the beef is yet unused. I had been serving on the Yorktown about two months previous to the seizure-- Whilst on the station I have met with individuals who seemed to have a very good knowledge of the manner in which the slave trade was carried on. I have principally derived my information from American Officers. I should think 250 slaves might have been carried from Africa to Cuba in the Patuxent-- 25 days would be rather a long voyage than a short one-- I dont know how many men would be required to take charge of a cargo of that number of slaves. 8 or 10 persons more would have been quite sufficient.
[left margin] do. Rice [/left margin] We counted 71 bags of rice on board -- sacks of old canvass. They averaged about 100 lbs apiece and over. There was a tierce of 8 barrels of rice. full. The barrels were common sized flour barrels. The allowance for each slave is generally about a pound or pint of rice apiece. A cargo of 250 slaves could have been subsisted 30 odd days on the amt of rice on board-- Rice & water is the usual food given the slaves. It was African rice a good deal
[left margin] Water [/left margin] mixed with gravel & dirt. There were 10 casks of water & 1 butt containing or capable of containing in all 1500 gallons. In that hot climate a gallon a day to a man would be a liberal allowance for drinking, cooking & washing. A pint is usually, as I have understood allowed per day
[page 3]
to each slave. There were no other water casks in the vessel to my Knowledge. I judge that 1500 galls of water is sufficient for a crew of 15 persons at a gall per day each for 30 days and at the rate of 1 pint per day for each slave for 250 slaves for 30 days. The casks could be very easily filled on the Coast of Africa in the rainy season. I shᵈ [should] judge they might have been filled in one night by spreading an awning. It is not usual for vessels of that size to make such preparations for water. It is not essential to a slaver to have a slave deck.-- We found 50 pieces of plank
[left margin] Plank [/left margin] of various lengths from 4 to 38 or 40 feet in length, most of it long: some 10 or 12 pieces of intermediate length-- This plank might have been laid as a deck in a very few minutes without either hatchet or saw without the slightest difficulty. The plank was new deck plank about six inches wide & 3 inches thick
[left margin] Stauncheons [/left margin] The Stauncheons which we found on board the vessel were not all up and such as were up were not fixtures as is usual on board of vessels carrying cargo This would afford a facility in laying a deck with planks -- Such a deck as this plank would make would be very useful in transporting a cargo of slaves,
[left margin] Arch of deck [/left margin] more so than a permanent deck. The beams of the deck were slightly arched so that the deck would be
[left margin] Deck frame [/left margin] supported even without the stauncheons. The deck frame seemed sounder than the rest of the vessel and from that I judged that it had been put in since the vessel was built-- Under the deck plank, I found a large quantity
[left margin] Pine plank [/left margin] of pitch pine plank stowed & billetted up so as to be level so that it would form a foundation for the deck plank on which it might have been laid by a few hands in a very few minutes-- I found also on board some six or seven tons of stone ballast stowed abaft the mainmast between that & the Cabin Bulkhead.
[page 4]
I found some pieces of chain in the holds. One piece about 8 fathoms & one about 5 fathoms. a small pair of chain [illegible] and a large number of assorted bolts such as come out of ships timbers rather larger than would come out of the Patuxent. a ring & bolt. some iron hooks also. a chest of old tools good for nothing. A number of spare pars ^4 spare sails ^ were found The deck could have been laid with the cargo she then had on board leaving a flush space of 4 1/2 or 5 feet under the deck. The slaves are stowed sitting, one within the legs of the other and 4 1/2 feet would have been ample. When the Patuxent was taken she was anchored about a mile from the shore.
(The Logbook of the Patuxent produced identified IS. Clark Master from June 19 1844 to 12 May 1845. Hiatus to 23 June 1845 when N. T. Davis is master. in the port of New York 26th June crew came on board. Captain, passengers & pilot went on shore Heading from N.Y. towards Coast of Africa 2 Augt. 1845. 7 a.m. made Cape Mount. 11 furled sails. Captain & passengers went on shore.
19 Augt. 1845 to 22 August Vessel lies at Cape Mount 22nd. Took in 3 passengers at Sulima for Sierra Leone. 24th at Sierra Leone. Capt. & 2 passengers went on shore.
Log Book of Brig Atalanta found on board identified 18 July 1844 commences. Johnston Martee. Heading from N.Y. to W. Coast of Africa. Arrived on coast & sailed up & down until Dec 24th 1844 Capt. told crew that vessel was sold to Capt. Canot of Cape Mount.
This last entry is in Capt. Davis's handwriting. There are other entries in the Book in his handwriting.
Is there a notorious establishment at Cape Mount for
 

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The Thiaroye massacre, 1944




Tirailleurs as prisoners of war
A short history of the mass killing of black soldiers in the Free French Forces who were protesting against non-payment of wages towards the end of World War II.
It is an often-neglected fact that the majority of General De Gaulle’s Free French Forces were not white Frenchmen but were predominantly troops from its colonies in Africa and the Middle East.
Those from West Africa were known as the “tirailleurs Senegalais” (“Senegalese sharpshooters”) but were actually from Guinea, Mali, Senegal, Burkina Faso, Chad, Benin, Gabon, Ivory Coast, Central African Republic, and Togo.
17,000 of them died in the defence of France from Nazi occupation, and many others were captured and either died or suffered terribly in the racist German prisoner of war camps.
Following the liberation of France, from which black soldiers were excluded by Allied High Command, the tirailleurs were stripped of their uniforms and hurriedly sent back to Africa.
Largely unpaid, they were told they would receive backpay upon their arrival.
Some of the West African troops were suspicious of French authorities and refused to board ships to depart until they received what they were owed. One such incident occurred at a camp in Huyton on Merseyside in England.
Tirailleurs being repatriated were taken to a holding point at Camp Thiaroye, near Dakar in Senegal.
Those stationed there were already upset at poor treatment by the white colonial authorities, following fighting for France and experiencing the horrors of the Nazi POW camps. So when they were told that their payment could only be converted into the local currency at half the actual exchange rate, discontent boiled over.
On 30 November, 1944, around 1300 tirailleurs mutinied and began protesting against poor treatment and for equal pay with white soldiers, taking a French general hostage.
In the early hours of 1 December, French troops attacked. Despite the mutineers being unarmed, they came in shooting, with armoured cars, mounted machine guns and even a US Army tank.
The official death toll of the repression was 35, although meticulous research by French historian Armelle Mabon suggests a much higher number of victims - around 3-400 - which is more in line with the estimations of veterans.
The mass grave into which the bodies were dumped has yet to be discovered.
In March the following year, 34 of the survivors were sentenced to up to 10 years in prison by a military tribunal.
In 1947, those imprisoned were amnestied, however some had already died in prison. To date they have not been pardoned, nor has the French government apologised.
Like much of France’s violent and oppressive colonial history, the Thiaroye massacre is not taught in schools, and a 1988 film about the event, Camp de Thiaroye directed by Ousmane Sembène, was banned in France, and Senegal as well.

 

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🇪🇹 🇪🇹 Beautiful Ethiopian woman of the late 19th Century

Image primarily taken in Jimma & Shewa over 125 years ago between 1885 & 1894 G.C
 

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Ammianus Marcellinus, 325-330 A.D. (before the Arab & Turk invasions)​
]



"The men of Egypt are mostly BLACK or BROWN with a skinny dessicated look"... -Ammianus Marcellinus, 325-330 A.D. (Book 22)[/img][/center]
 
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