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African American History aka Black History & History of Afrikans World Wide

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Previously enslaved African American women hold their babies on the Fripp plantation, Saint Helena Island, SC, 1863-1866. The population of ante-bellum coastal South Carolina had a high percentage of African Americans, and hence preserved their traditions and dialect know as Gullah or Geechee. Civil War era.
 

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THE ORIGIN OF LAGOS
When Nigeria was governed on the basis of tribe Northern (Hausa), Western (Yoruba) and Eastern (lgbo) regions and the colonial Lagos older than Nigeria itself was being claimed as a part of the Yoruba Westem region, by virtue of its location and Yoruba origin with reference to its Benin (Edo) royalty as far back as late 17th century and the American and Caribbean ongins of the descendants of the Ologbowo and the Popo Aguda (Brazilian) returnees of the 1840s. of course, original Lagosians of the time challenged the Lagos belongs the West theory; successfully proved the independence of the old Lagos (gede be L' eko wa) not only stopped the attempt to merge Lagos with Westem Nigena but also got Lagos State as one of the first twelve states of Nigeria created in 1967
Since 1967, cosmopolitan Lagos has moved from being the capital of Nigeria to a mega city of excellence which now sets the pace of political, social and economical development more than it has ever done in the past. This is because, the ongin of Lagos has been influenced by mot only the (Idejo) chieftaincy, the Benin (Edo) Oba Ado royalty, the civilized and educated Saro (Olowogbowo) and Brazilian (Popo Aguda) returnees of the 1840s, the Tapa (Bida/Nupe), the Black Americans and the Caribbean (artisans of the early 19" century Lagos). These lots constitutes the force that built up Original Lagos (Eko Akoko) before the cessation of the colony of Lagos to the British crown in 1861, long before the creation of the British protectorate of Nigeria in 1914.
The original Lagosians established family compounds and business centres as far back as early 17th century, e.g Iga Aromire, Iga Iduganran, and the agboles (compounds) of the four original settlements Isale Eko, Olowogbowo, Oko Faji and Popo Aguda. These settlements of Lafiaji/lkoyi, Ebute Meta/Yaba were added during the colonial days.
By virtue of the above stated, original Lagos (Eko Akoko) produced Nigeria’s first modern day professionals such as lawyer Sapara-Williams (1880), Doctor J. K. Randle, Engineer Herbert Macaulay, Journalist Kitoyi Ajasa, Chartered Accountant Akintola Williams e.t.c all of them from the early Olowogbowo settlements.
In my own opinion, those who fabricate the very recent theory that Oba Ashipa was a Yoruba from lsheri instead of a Benin Prince from the Oba of Benin (Edo State) were mischievously, politically motivated to historically confirm the story of politicians of the 1940s who claim that Lagos belongs to the West; Yoruba/West of the regional Nigeria.
The then Lagos politicians of the Action group Party controlled Western Nigeria went as far as to claim that some well known families of Lagos originated from Oyo, Ekiti, Ijebu, Egba, ljesha etc. in order to qualify them for membership of the Western Nigeria house of assemble or the Nigerian senate needless to say some got their fingers burnt when they were challenged by indigenes of the cities claimed in the 1940s.
 

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For the record. If I give you or sell you something that wasn't rightfully mine. You are taking part in a crime called theft or stealing. Despite whatever deal you made with the thief or fence.

 

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Annie Lee Cooper, civil rights legend, dies

Published 6:46 pm Wednesday, November 24, 2010


By Staff Reports











Annie Lee Cooper, a civil rights hero, died Wednesday afternoon at Vaughan Regional Medical Center. She was 100 years old.
Cooper became known worldwide in 1965 for a confrontation with Sheriff James G. Clark.
Historian David J. Garrow tells the story in his book, “Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Voting Rights Act of 1965,” which was released in the 1970s by Yale University Press.


According to Garrow’s documented version, Cooper had stood in line for hours outside the Dallas County Courthouse to register to vote. Clark ordered the 224-pound, 54-year-old African-American woman to go home. Cooper clamed he poked her in the back of the neck with either a billy club or a cattle prod. Cooper turned and delivered a right hook to the sheriff’s jaw. He dropped to the ground.
John Lewis, who later would become a Congressman, said at the time, “Clark whacked her so hard we could hear the sound several rows back.”
Deputies wrestled Cooper down on the ground, arrested her, charged her with assault, and attempted murder.


Newspapers from the time said she was detained in jail for 11 hours. Sheriff’s deputies released her because they were afraid Clark would come back in and beat her.
As she sat in jail, Martin Luther King Jr. made a historic speech in Brown Chapel. Here’s what he said about Cooper:
“This is what happened today: Mrs. Cooper was down in that line, and they haven’t told the press the truth about it. Mrs. Cooper wouldn’t have turned around and hit Sheriff Clark just to be hitting. And of course, as you know, we teach a philosophy of not retaliating and not hitting back, but the truth of the situation is that Mrs. Cooper, if she did anything, was provoked by Sheriff Clark. At that moment, he was engaging in some very ugly business-as-usual action. This is what brought about that scene there.”


Yusuf Salaam, a former city councilman and state representative, recalled politicking in Ward 8 for the position of councilman. Some of the residents in the ward held coffee meetings for him. He went to a lady’s house he did not know. He heard her story. It was Cooper.
He promised her then he would have the street that ran in front of her house named for her. During his first year as councilman, he did just that. Annie Cooper Avenue runs off Division Street in East Selma, where she had lived.
Salaam called Cooper a “freedom fighter” who cared more about the movement and its ideals than she did for self-aggrandizement.
“We will miss her sacrificial spirit,” he said. “She did not rest on her laurels.”
Earlier this year, Cooper celebrated her 100th birthday with a celebration. Councilman Corey Bowie of Ward 8 honored her and others by planting a tree in a park in Ward 8. Bowie called her a “trailblazer.”
“Today, the community and the world lost a great pioneer,” Bowie said just an hour after learning of Cooper’s death. “She made it better for everyone and she will be truly missed.”


 

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March 18, 1935 — Psychiatrist, author, and scholar Dr. Frances Cress Welsing was born in Chicago, Illinois.
 

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Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. in Ghana, West Africa. Nkrumah and King realized that the struggle of Black people, wherever we are in the world, is a common struggle. They were very wise men.
 

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Rest in peace Mr. Nathaniel Woods.





‘To Live and Die in Alabama,’ FX/Hulu ‘New York Times Presents’ documentary, profiles Birmingham police murders, Nathaniel Woods execution
Published: Nov. 29, 2021, 3:48 p.m.



13
Three Birmingham Police Officers Killed


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By Carol Robinson | crobinson@al.com
The fatal shootings of three Birmingham police officers at an Ensley drug house, and the subsequent execution of one of two men convicted in the killings, is the topic of a New York Times docuseries that will air Friday night.

To Live and Die in Alabama will premiere on FX and Hulu on December 3 at 10 p.m. ET, Deadline.com announced Monday.

The film from director-producer Matt Kay examines the June 17, 2004, killings of Officers Carlos Owen, Harley A. Chisholm III, and Charles R. Bennett on what became known as the deadliest day in the history of Alabama’s largest police department.


A fourth officer, Michael Collins, was wounded but survived.


Birmingham officers crop

The three Birmingham police officers slain in 2004, from left to right: Carlos "Curly" Owen, 58; Harley Alfred Chisholm III, 40; Charles Robert Bennett, 33. (file)


Nathaniel Woods and Kerry Spencer both were convicted of capital murder in the slayings, and of attempted murder in the wounding of Collins.


Spencer is awaiting an execution date and opted into the state’s newly approved method of execution by nitrogen hypoxia in 2018.


“The doc will examine Woods’ case in full, including allegations of police misconduct that were never raised in his trial,’’ Deadline.com reported.


Woods was executed on March 5, 2020, despite protests from groups and celebrities - including Kim Kardashian and O.J. Simpson - that he was not the one who fired the fatal bullets.


Nathaniel Woods

Bart Starr Jr. wants the scheduled execution of Nathaniel Woods to be stopped.


Advocates and family members for Woods argued Woods did not shoot the officers and shouldn’t be executed.


Prosecutors, however, said during the 2005 trial that while Woods did not fire the shots, he helped set up the ambush for Spencer, who did kill the officers.


Advocates for Woods said there was no evidence of a plan to lure the officers into a trap and that Spencer acted alone.


Federal court documents filed in Woods’ case detailed the crime, saying Chisholm, Owen, and Collins arrived at Woods’ apartment to serve the warrant, where they met Bennett. It read:


“Officers Chisholm and Bennett went to the front door, while Officers Collins and Owen went to the back door.


“Woods, who was still standing behind his screen door, began to curse again and told the officers to leave. Officer Owen informed Woods that they had a warrant for his arrest and that he needed to come outside. Woods refused, even after the officers showed him the NCIC printout and his mugshot. He told the officers, ‘If you come in here, we’ll f*** you up.’


“Suddenly, Woods turned and ran deeper into the apartment. Officer Chisholm followed Woods from the front, while Officers Collins and Owen entered via the rear door.


“None of the officers had their weapons drawn. Woods quickly surrendered, asking the men not to spray him with mace.


“Officer Collins ran to the back door, planning to join Officer Bennett at the front and assist him when the others brought Woods outside. Instead, he heard shuffling behind him, then gunfire. Though shot, Officer Collins ran to his patrol car for cover, where he radioed a ‘double aught’ call for all possible assistance.


“From his car, Officer Collins saw Kerry ‘Nookie’ Spencer, Woods’s roommate, standing in the doorway and shooting in his direction. Several bullets hit the vehicle. By the time help arrived, the other three officers were dead.


“Officer Bennett was discovered with a smoking hole in his face, and Officers Owen and Chisholm were found in the apartment. Each had died from multiple gunshot wounds.


“Responding officers found an SKS assault rifle in the grass outside, a handgun in the bathroom, and two long guns in a bedroom. The officers’ bulletproof vests had been pierced, typical of damage sustained by high-powered rifle fire.”


A “doorman” at the drug house testified Woods and Spencer sold mostly crack cocaine to 100-150 customers per day, according to court records.

 

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1960s Louisiana literacy test that was used to 'prove' eligibility to vote. In reality, it was used to prevent African Americans from voting, being intentionally misleading with some of the questions being impossible to answer correctly.



 

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A rare picture of George Harry Galt, a British colonial officer arriving in Ibanda, Uganda in 1905. A tired Ugandan called Rutaraka later speared him to death
 

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Ntsiki Biko, widow of anti-apartheid hero Steve Bantu Biko (December 18, 1946 – September 12, 1977), with two of their children, Samora, 2, and Nkosinathi, 6, in front of their house in King William's Town, South Africa on September 9, 1977.

Stephen Bantu Biko was an anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and 1970s. A student leader, he later founded the Black Consciousness Movement which would empower and mobilize much of the urban Black population.
 

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35 Years After MOVE Bombing That Killed 11, Philadelphia Apologizes
A police helicopter dropped an explosive charge onto the roof of a rowhouse during an armed standoff in 1985. The resultant fire destroyed 61 homes in a West Philadelphia neighborhood.




Workers searching through the rubble in West Philadelphia on May 15, 1985, two days after a police helicopter dropped an improvised bomb onto a rowhouse, leaving 11 people dead.

Workers searching through the rubble in West Philadelphia on May 15, 1985, two days after a police helicopter dropped an improvised bomb onto a rowhouse, leaving 11 people dead.Credit...George Widman/Associated Press
John Ismay
By John Ismay
Published Nov. 13, 2020Updated May 15, 2021
The Philadelphia City Council this week formally apologized for the decision in 1985 to drop an improvised bomb on a rowhouse occupied by the MOVE separatist group, a desperate action that resulted in a fire that killed 11 people and destroyed 61 homes.
The resolution, approved on Thursday, marked the first time that the city had formally apologized for the action. The measure, which also calls for an annual day of remembrance on May 13, the anniversary of the bombing, was sponsored by Jamie Gauthier, a city councilwoman who grew up near the West Philadelphia neighborhood where the bombing happened.
Ms. Gauthier recalled watching the aftermath of the bombing on television as a child, and said that the neighborhood was only now starting to fully recover from the devastation.
“There have been divisions in our city between police and community for decades, and I think if we had done the true work of acknowledging what happened with MOVE and with other acts of police violence, and we had really worked on not only the acknowledgment but building better relationships and working towards reconciliation, we wouldn’t find ourselves in the place we are now,” she said in an interview on Friday.

“It was always striking to me that we did this, that our city did this and that no one ever was held accountable,” she added. “I thought that was unconscionable.”
Ms. Gautier began circulating a draft resolution before the May 13 anniversary of the MOVE attack, but the effort stalled and then was delayed because of coronavirus restrictions. The May 25 killing of George Floyd gave renewed energy to the resolution, she said, and the need to recognize the effects that police killings of Black people have had on the community grew even more with the Oct. 26 killing of Walter Wallace Jr., who was fatally shot by the police during an encounter in the same neighborhood where the MOVE home once stood.
In a statement, Mayor Jim Kenney of Philadelphia acknowledged the resolution’s importance. “In an effort to learn from our past and do better by our residents in the future, this annual day of observation is a positive step in the healing process our city desperately needs,” he said. “This year we saw the pain and trauma caused by the MOVE bombing are still alive in West Philadelphia, so I commend Council for taking this step toward healing.”
The mayor acknowledged missteps in the city’s attempts to rebuild the neighborhood in the years immediately following the attack, but said a recent public-private partnership had succeeded in reconstructing homes in the affected area.
MOVE, a group described by members as “a back-to-nature movement” that would return the United States to Native Americans and do away with all government, was deemed an “authoritarian, violence-threatening cult” by city officials, who said that the group used threats, abuse and intimidation to terrify their neighbors and to bring about confrontation. At the time of the attack, the police were acting to clear the group out of a rowhouse at 6221 Osage Avenue in response to neighbors’ complaints of filthy conditions in the house and nightlong amplified lectures from MOVE members.

At 6 a.m. on May 13, 1985, the Philadelphia police came under gunfire from people inside the home, which led to a daylong standoff. Throughout the day, the Philadelphia Special Investigation Commission later found, the police fired more than 10,000 rounds of ammunition in less than 90 minutes at the rowhouse, which was occupied by men, women and children. Calling the police officers’ actions “clearly excessive and unreasonable,” the commission’s report acknowledged that the police were unable to fully suppress the gunfire coming from the home and that efforts to negotiate with the people inside had been haphazard and fruitless.

Image

A woman was comforted as she returned to her destroyed neighborhood days after the fire.Credit...Jack Kanthal/Associated Press
Police bomb squad members fashioned an improvised bomb out of plastic explosives, and an officer dropped the charge from a helicopter onto the roof of the MOVE rowhouse in an effort to destroy a fortified bunker the group had built there. At 5:27 p.m. the bomb detonated, which started a fire that the police ordered firefighters to let burn. The blaze spread, ultimately destroying 60 other nearby homes.
“The plan to bomb the MOVE house was reckless, ill-conceived and hastily approved,” the commission’s report said in 1986. “Dropping a bomb on an occupied rowhouse was unconscionable and should have been rejected out-of-hand.”

“The hasty, reckless and irresponsible decision by the police commissioner and the fire commissioner to use the fire as a tactical weapon was unconscionable,” the report added.
The deaths of 11 people, six adults and five children, in the police action were classified as “unjustified homicides.”
Police Commissioner Gregore J. Sambor, who directed the aerial bombing, resigned in November 1985. A grand jury in 1988 cleared Mayor W. Wilson Goode and other top city officials of criminal liability for death and destruction resulting from the operation.

In an op-ed published by The Guardian on May 10, Mr. Goode, the former mayor, called on the city to issue a formal apology for the attack. “I apologize and encourage others do the same,” Mr. Goode wrote. “We will be a better city for it.”

Image

Police officers on a rooftop as fires burned after the bomb was dropped on MOVE headquarters.Credit...George Widman/Associated Press








 

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“How long is ‘Black America’ expected to worship a God on its knees and stare into the clouds awaiting the coming or return of the promised ‘Messiah’ to free them from their earthly bonds? Did any group, ethnic or otherwise ever before free themselves on their knees by praying? Did any group before allow its women to be dragged off to prison. Beaten, spat upon, disrobed in public, set upon by ferocious dogs-their children included. While their men stand by passively and watch it all in the name of God, except the African American.”
- Yosef Ben Jochannan -
 

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"The artifact called El Negro found in pre colonial Mexico and its description. It’s documented as African hairstyle with “a nose ring” and “kinky hair”. This was one of Brother Runoko Rashidi favorite pieces and he took many tours and close up images. I have seen some racist people call this a monkey but we can clearly see it’s not a monkey."
 
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