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African American History aka Black History & History of Afrikans World Wide

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Thelonious Monk performing at the Randalls Island Jazz Festival in 1959.

Photo by Kwame Brathwaite.

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The Immortal Henrietta Lacks. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/henrietta-lacks-immortal-cells-6421299/?no-ist


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Captain William Hilton Catlin was captain of the first all African American squad headed by an African American (1873)


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THE PRIMITIVE BLACK NATIONS OF AMERICA—by professor Constantine Samuel Rafinesque, 1832
The Native American Negroes or Black Indians have been seen in Brazil, Guyana, Caraccas, Popayan, Choco, North California and etc.
1) The Aroras or Caroras of Cumana, were black, but with fine features and long hair, like the Jolofs and Gallas of Africa.
2) The Esteros latitude 32, are like the Hottentots and the Numuquas, Tambukis, and many other Nigritian tribes, not black, but dark brown, yet complete Negroes, with large thick lips, broad flat noses, and very ugly, with hair crisped or curly. All these tribes live in New California
3) The American Negroes of Quarenqua, in Choco, (the great level plain 900 miles long, 90 wide, separating the Andes of South America from the mountains of Panama,) were black and with woolly heads in 1506. They are mentioned by Dangleria, and all the early accurate writers.
4) The Yemasees or Jamasi were remarkably Black people Notices of Florida and the Campaigns;
5) The Ancient Caracoles of Hayti, represented as a Nation of Beasts by the Historical Songs
6) The Califurnams of the Carib Islands, called Black Caribs or Guauini by others, are a black branch of Caribs.
7) The Arquahos of Cutara mentioned by Garcias in the West Indies, quite black.
8.) The Aroras of Raleigh or Yaruras of the Spaniards, ugly black or brown Negroes, yet existing near the Oronoco, and language known, called Monkeys by their neighbors
9) The Chaymas of Guyana, brown Negroes like Hottentots,
10) The Manjipas and Porcigis of Nienhof, the Motayas of Knivet are all of Brazil, brown Negroes with curly hair.
11) The Nigritas of Martyr in Darien, yet existing in Choco under the name of Chuanas or Gaunas or Chinos (Dariente). Ugly black or red Negroes.
12) The Manabies of Popayan (in Columbia) blackish with negroe features and hair.
13) The Guabas and Jaras of Tagugalpa (Tegucigalpa) near Honduras.
14) The Enslen or Esteros of New California, ugly blackish Negroes.
15) The Black Indians met by the Spaniards in Louisiana in 1543.
16) The Moon-eyed Negroes, and Albinos, destroyed by the Cherokees, and seen in Panama. Barton,
Among these the Yarura language has 50% of analogy with the Gauna, 40% with the Ashanty or Fanty of Guinea, and about 33% with the Fulah, Bornu and Congo languages of Africa...
In Asia it has 39% of numerical affinity with the Samang Negroes, and 40% with the Negroes of Andaman as well as those of Australia or New Holland...


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John Coltrane is performing Alabama in 1963 with McCoy Tyner on piano, Jimmy Garrison on bass & Elvin Jones on drums


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“the literature clearly establishes that a legally sanctioned law enforcement system existed in America before the Civil War for the express purpose of controlling the slave population and protecting the interests of slave owners. The similarities between the slave patrols and modern American policing are too salient to dismiss or ignore. Hence, the slave patrol should be considered a forerunner of modern American law enforcement.”

A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing
January 7, 2014
EKU Online > A Brief History of Slavery and the Origins of American Policing

By: Victor E. Kappeler, Ph.D.
The birth and development of the American police can be traced to a multitude of historical, legal and political-economic conditions. The institution of slavery and the control of minorities, however, were two of the more formidable historic features of American society shaping early policing. Slave patrols and Night Watches, which later became modern police departments, were both designed to control the behaviors of minorities. For example, New England settlers appointed Indian Constables to police Native Americans (National Constable Association, 1995), the St. Louis police were founded to protect residents from Native Americans in that frontier city, and many southern police departments began as slave patrols. In 1704, the colony of Carolina developed the nation’s first slave patrol. Slave patrols helped to maintain the economic order and to assist the wealthy landowners in recovering and punishing slaves who essentially were considered property.
Policing was not the only social institution enmeshed in slavery. Slavery was fully institutionalized in the American economic and legal order with laws being enacted at both the state and national divisions of government. Virginia, for example, enacted more than 130 slave statutes between 1689 and 1865. Slavery and the abuse of people of color, however, was not merely a southern affair as many have been taught to believe. Connecticut, New York and other colonies enacted laws to criminalize and control slaves. Congress also passed fugitive Slave Laws, laws allowing the detention and return of escaped slaves, in 1793 and 1850. As Turner, Giacopassi and Vandiver (2006:186) remark, “the literature clearly establishes that a legally sanctioned law enforcement system existed in America before the Civil War for the express purpose of controlling the slave population and protecting the interests of slave owners. The similarities between the slave patrols and modern American policing are too salient to dismiss or ignore. Hence, the slave patrol should be considered a forerunner of modern American law enforcement.”
The legacy of slavery and racism did not end after the Civil War. In fact it can be argued that extreme violence against people of color became even worse with the rise of vigilante groups who resisted Reconstruction. Because vigilantes, by definition, have no external restraints, lynch mobs had a justified reputation for hanging minorities first and asking questions later. Because of its tradition of slavery, which rested on the racist rationalization that Blacks were sub-human, America had a long and shameful history of mistreating people of color, long after the end of the Civil War. Perhaps the most infamous American vigilante group, the Ku Klux Klan started in the 1860s, was notorious for assaulting and lynching Black men for transgressions that would not be considered crimes at all, had a White man committed them. Lynching occurred across the entire county not just in the South. Finally, in 1871 Congress passed the Ku Klux Klan Act, which prohibited state actors from violating the Civil Rights of all citizens in part because of law enforcements’ involvement with the infamous group. This legislation, however, did not stem the tide of racial or ethnic abuse that persisted well into the 1960s.
Though having white skin did not prevent discrimination in America, being White undoubtedly made it easier for ethnic minorities to assimilate into the mainstream of America. The additional burden of racism has made that transition much more difficult for those whose skin is black, brown, red, or yellow. In no small part because of the tradition of slavery, Blacks have long been targets of abuse. The use of patrols to capture runaway slaves was one of the precursors of formal police forces, especially in the South. This disastrous legacy persisted as an element of the police role even after the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In some cases, police harassment simply meant people of African descent were more likely to be stopped and questioned by the police, while at the other extreme, they have suffered beatings, and even murder, at the hands of White police. Questions still arise today about the disproportionately high numbers of people of African descent killed, beaten, and arrested by police in major urban cities of America.
National Constables Association (1995). Constable. In W. G. Bailey (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Police Science (2nd ed., pp. 114–114). New York, NY: Garland Press.
Turner, K. B. , Giacopassi , D. , & Vandiver , M. (2006) . Ignoring the Past: Coverage of Slavery and Slave Patrols in Criminal Justice Texts. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 17: (1), 181–195.

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Quilt depicting horrors of lynching (cold blooded murder)
Annette Smith, left, Betty Frierson and Ruth Edwards, members of the Indy Connection Quilters, work on the next quilt for the Lynch Quilt Project titled Red Rum Summer.
But artist LaShawnda Crowe Storm’s quilt is provocative and disturbing — and purposely so.
The quilt, “Her Name Was Laura Nelson,” depicts the life-size image of the lynching of a black woman a century ago.
VIDEO: The Story Behind The Lynch Quilt. WARNING: Video contains graphic content.
VIDEO: Reactions to lynching quilt. WARNING: Video contains graphic content
And now it is available at the Indianapolis Central Library for all to see and ponder and discuss. The quilt will be shown through March 23 as part of the library’s “Meet the Artists” exhibit, which includes pieces from 15 local black artists.
The piece drew some strong reactions from those who walked by the exhibit on Sunday.
"I find it very offensive," said Randolph Davison, 55, an African-American and retired serviceman from Gary. "We’ve been through enough and don’t need remembrances like this."
Davison said a piece like this does not belong in a public library.
"It makes me want to cry," he said.
Tamara Moore, 37, a white woman from Indianapolis, was with her 7-year-old daughter, Samantha, when they came across the quilt.
Samantha seemed confused by the image, but her mother was clearly outraged by it.
"Why would they make a quilt like that? It’s horrible," Moore said, who also said she didn’t think it belonged in a public library.
Oft-ignored history
The artist says such a response is a good thing. For many, Crowe Storm said, viewing the quilt is like opening a wound. No wound heals, she said, until it bleeds.
Frank Espich, The Indianapolis Star
Indianapolis artist LaShawnda Crowe Storm crafted a quilt that depicts the life-size image of a black woman’s lynching a century ago.
"Something that needs to be addressed is this history of racism," Crowe Storm said. "Lynching was really about controlling a population to stay in their place."
Community leaders and scholars say the quilt is a reminder of a time in history many would rather ignore.
There is no ignoring this quilt. The woman’s image comes from a black-and-white photo of a lynching near Okemah, Okla., on May 25, 1911.
In a sea of soft white fabric bordered by black and red, the body of Laura Nelson dangles from a rope, head cocked sharply to the side on her broken neck.
"The art form is very important in the telling of the stories of black people," said Valerie Grim, chairwoman of Indiana University’s Department of African American and African Diaspora Studies. "Lynching, as a reality of black people, was one of the worst moments in the history of America."
The quilt reminds us of terrible deeds and ugly times. The wounds of slavery, racism and oppression still linger in the U.S., Grim said, and it’s important to face our past, regardless of how uncomfortable it makes us.
Teaching the young
The Rev. Charles Harrison, pastor at Barnes United Methodist Church, said he understands that many will be hurt by the image on the quilt.
Still, he thinks it is an important teaching tool.
"For those who are old enough to remember the dark past, it’s a reminder," said Harrison, the president of the Ten Point Coalition, a faith-based anti-crime group that counsels inner-city youths.
"Sometimes, we have to remind ourselves and the younger generation of the heavy price that was paid by those who were part of the civil rights movement."
“Lynching is not just a black history; it’s an American history,” Crowe Storm said. “We must begin to address it as a nation, or we won’t be able to move forward.”
Indianapolis artist LaShawnda Crowe Storm
John H. Stanfield II, a professor in IU’s Department of African American and African Diaspora Studies, said the library must be responsible in how it presents the quilt.
"The quilt is not only an art piece," Stanfield said, "but also a device that should be used to educate the public about the horrors of lynching."
The quilt, he said, might be a catalyst for discussion and action.
"Ready or not, our moment for serious discussion has arrived," Stanfield said. "None of us, irrespective of our ancestry, can afford to remain ignorant, naive, prejudiced or fearful about racial differences."
Opening a dialogue
Stanfield said the library must ensure that the quilt does more than simply shock and disturb.
Jackie Nytes, the Indianapolis Public Library’s chief executive officer, said the quilt is part of a broader educational effort.
"It’s not an easy subject, no doubt about it," Nytes said. "Neither were the AIDS quilts when those were circulated around the country."
The quilt confronts patrons as they step off an escalator on the library’s third floor.
A black nylon partition keeps the public a little more than an arm’s length away. Although the quilt is not under guard, library staff are always in the vicinity.
"For any parents who find themselves in the situation of walking past it with their child, I hope they are able to say: ‘This was a very sad time in American history, and we don’t do this anymore,’" Nytes said. "This is a learning moment. We don’t do our kids any favors by pretending it didn’t happen."
Exhibit curator Tony Radford said a committee that accepted the Crowe Storm quilt believed it was designed to enlighten, educate and heal. The display includes signs explaining the artist’s background and goals for the piece.
Black History Month, and this is part of our history, our culture,” said Radford, also an artist who will have some pieces on display in the exhibit. “Art is not always going to be pretty flowers.”
Part of our past
Thousands of men and more than 100 women were lynched in America between 1850 and 1950, but Crowe Storm said Laura Nelson was the only woman she could find who was photographed in the noose.
Having a woman on the quilt was important, Crowe Storm said, because she hopes her piece brings up issues of gender and violence.
"Lynching is not just a black history; it’s an racist white people history," Crowe Storm said. "We must begin to address it as a black people, or we won’t be able to move forward

Attack on the Black Family women and children first the 1911 Nelson lynching.
Austin, Laura and their son L.D. Nelson were taken into custody after L.D. Nelson allegedly shot and killed George H. Loney, Okemah’s deputy sheriff, when Loney and a posse turned up at the Nelson’s home to investigate the theft of a cow belonging to a Mr. Claude Littrell. Laura’s husband pleaded guilty to the theft and was sent to the state prison at McAlester in the town of the same name for three years. Some accounts say in an effort to save her son, Laura said she had fired the fatal shot. Both she and L.D. were arrested and placed in jail at Okemah before their position their was compromised at the Old Schoolton Bridge by lynching.

Austin Nelson’s court records courtesy of Ms. Frances Jones-Sneed
Austin Nelson’s Appearance Docket by Attorney James C. Wright
Austin Nelson’s Jail Charges by Attorney James C. Wright
01 MAY 1911 (Monday)- Austin Nelson steals one cow from Claude Littrell of Paden, OK
02 MAY 1911 (Tuesday) - George H. Loney shot and killed @ Nelson Home (Creek Township, OK)
11 MAY 1911 (Thursday) - Laura & L.D. Nelson charged for the killing of George H. Loney
12 MAY 1911 (Friday)- Austin Nelson’s plea of guilty entered for ‘larceny of domestic animal’; sentenced to 3 years @ McAlcester State Penitentiary (Appeal Bond fixed @ $3,000.00)
25 MAY 1911 (Thursday) - Laura & L.D. Nelson lynched from the Old Schoolton Bridge @ Yarbrough’s Crossing, west of Okemah, OK.
If the date is not linked above, it has yet to be officially found in documented records.
Published by New York Times; May 26, 1911
Lynching photographs by George Henry “Bill” Farnum; 1911
While Laura’s genealogy is not obvious, her husband, Austin Nelson, can be traced to his father, David Nelson, who is described on the 1870 US Federal Census of Meridian, Bosque County, Texas. David Nelson (c. Apr 1850 in Georgia) is living with his wife, Rhoda (Randall) Nelson (c. 1848 in Alabama or Louisiana), whom he married on September 16, 1869 in Texas—taken from the Texas marriage index on www.ancestry.com. The couple reside with Rhoda’s alleged—but not confirmed—mother named Hannah Randall (c. 1820 in Georgia). The couple have two children named Delona Nelson (c. 1869 in Texas) and Mary Ella or Marietta Nelson (c. February 1870 in Texas). Of significance is that the Nelson surname in the 1870 census is written to reflect ‘Wilson’.
By 1880, the David Nelson family has moved to District 104 of Waco, McLennan County, Texas. Their family has also grown considerably with the addition of Austin Nelson (c. March 1872 in Texas), Charlie Nelson (c. 1874 in Texas), Hayes Columbus Nelson (24 December 1877 in Texas), and Ola Nelson (c. 1878 in Texas). Both Delona and Mary Ella Nelson are still present in the household, but only Delona Nelson is listed as attending school. David and Rhoda Nelson would go on to have an additional two children: Earley (15 November 1882 in Texas) and Sadie Nelson (c. May 1884 in Texas).
David Nelson and his family would move on to Eason, Pattowatomie County, Oklahoma by June 16, 1900.
Austin Nelson married his wife Laura sometime between 1896 and 1898 in Texas.By 1900, Austin and Laura lived in Pct. #5, District 8 of Bosque County, Texas. This is the same census in which the Nelsons describe being married for four years, again issuing a date of about 1898, and where their Texas-born son L.D. Nelson makes his first appearance as a three-year-old boy. The family is also listed incorrectly as being Caucasian. Austin describes himself as a farm laborer during this time. Laura and he are also listed as literates; able to read and write.
April 28, 1910 is when the Nelsons are enumerated again, but this time as part of the 1910 US Federal Census of District 138, Creek Township, Okfuskee County, Oklahoma. This census captures Austin Nelson at a reported age of 35, Laura Nelson at a reported age of 27, L.D. Nelson at a reported age of 12, and the Nelson’s daughter named Carrie as a one year old. Carrie Nelson is listed to have been born in Oklahoma. Laura describes herself as having had a total of three children, but only L.D. and Carrie are living. Austin describes himself as a Farmer. The 1910 census was conducted by Mr. Charles R. Deibl exactly one year and 25 days before the Nelson family was compromised.
The bodies of Laura and L.D. Nelson were interred at Greenleaf Cemetery south of Okemah, as the Nelson family made no effort to claim them. The graves are not marked.
As yet, there is no concrete proof that L.D. wore the name ‘Lawrence’, much as the case with some reports alleging Laura’s name was ‘Mary’. And that misinformation should not be perpetuated, though this is the case on the Wikipedia.com website concerning the Nelson lynchings.
Austin’s brother, Hayes Columbus Nelson married a woman by the name of Janie in about 1900. She had a son, named Roy Mitchell from a prior marriage. Together, Janie and Columbus had a daughter named Rosie Nelson in about 1902 in Oklahoma, but have a total of three children living in the 1910 census year. Columbus drafted for World War I on September 12, 1918 out of Boley, Okfuskee County, Oklahoma.
Austin’s brother, Earley Nelson married a woman by the name of Anna in about 1908. Together, Earley and Anna had a daughter named Fannie Nelson earlier in 1910 in Oklahoma. Earley drafted for World War I on September 12, 1918 out of Tulsa, Tulsa County, Oklahoma
Laura Nelson and her family are forever immortalized by the following artistic and historical works:
"Don’t Kill My Baby & My Son" by Woody Guthrie; a song
Laura, On High by Andrew Hardaway; a fictional biography and two act play based on the 1911 Nelson lynching
WithoutSanctuary.org by James Allen; a photo documentary concerning lynching in the United States


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harles S. L. Baker

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Charles S. L. Baker
This is a picture of Charles S. L. Baker
BornAugust 3, 1859
Savannah, Missouri
Died5 May 1926 (aged 66)
St. Joseph, Missouri
OccupationInventor, engineer
Years active67 years
Known forFriction Heater
Charles S. Lewis Baker (1859–1926) was an American inventor, who patented the friction heater.
Early life
Baker was born into slavery on August 3, 1859, in Savannah, Missouri. His mother, Betsy Mackay, died when he was three months old, leaving him to be brought up by the wife of his owner, Sallie Mackay, and his father, Abraham Baker.[1] He was the youngest of five children, Susie, Peter, Annie, and Ellen, all of whom were freed after the Civil War. Baker later received an education at Franklin College. His father was employed as an express agent, and once Baker turned fifteen, he became his assistant.[1] Baker worked with wagons and linchpins, which sparked an interest in mechanical sciences.

Photograph showing inventor Charles S.L Baker and his assistant demonstrating heating/radiator system.

Baker worked over the span of decades on his product, attempting several different forms of friction, including rubbing two bricks together mechanically, as well as using various types of metals. After twenty-three years, the invention was perfected in the form of two metal cylinders, one inside of the other, with a spinning core in the center made of wood, that produced the friction.[1] Baker started a business with several other men to manufacture the heater. The Friction Heat & Boiler Company was established in 1904, in St. Joseph, with Baker on the board of directors.[2] The company worked up to $136,000 in capital, equal to nearly $4 million in 2018.[3][4]

Mr. Baker claims that the particular mode of power used in creating the friction is not essential. It may be wind, water, gasoline, or any other source of energy. The most difficult part of the inventor's assertions to prove is that his system will light or heat a house at about half the cost of methods now in use.[5]
Baker died of pneumonia on May 5, 1926, in St. Joseph, Missouri.[6]
Personal life
At 21, Baker married 19-year-old Carrie Carriger on December 12, 1880, in Adams County, Iowa.[7] They had one child, born on January 3, 1882, named Lulu Belle Baker.[8]
See also
"Iowa, County Births, 1880-1935," database, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:XVDR-4JK : 11 March 2018), Charles Lewis Baker in entry for Baker, 03 Jan 1882; citing Corning, Adams, Iowa, United States; county district courts, Iowa; FHL microfilm 1,035,096.

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Emmett Till Riding Bikes With His Cousin, Wheeler Parker, And Their Friend, Joe B. Williams.

(1949/50) (Summit, Illinois)


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One of the Easter Island Moai statues that was carved but never erected. it would have stood 72ft tall (the tallest standing is 33ft high) and weighed more than 2 Boeing 737's. This also shows how the figures were carved.

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