African American History aka Black History & History of Afrikans World Wide

Lexx Diamond

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QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE(14 years old in this portrait)

“Marie was not considered beautiful by the standards of the day, which required a pale complexion, blond hair and blue eyes, Marie was blessed with an abundance of dark curls, a swarthy complexion, and brown eyes”

SOURCE;

(Josephine Wilkinson, “Louis XIV: The Power and the Glory”)

Definition of SWARTHY:

Black, Dark Brown, Tawny.

SOURCE;

(Samuel Johnson, “A Dictionary of the English Language; in which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals; and Illustrated in Their Different Significations ... Together with a History of the Language, and an English Grammar.”; Vol 4; 1818)

This portrait is titled "Portrait of a young woman"

It was painted by Jean Etienne Liotard in 1770...

In 1770, Jean Etienne Liotard was commissioned by Maria Theresa of Austria to paint this portrait of her daughter Marie Antoinette...

In May 1770, Marie Antoinette became Dauphine of France at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, (Louis XVI) heir apparent to the French throne...

She was the last Queen of France before the French Revolution...
 

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I know there’s Shaka Zulu. But there is a severe lack of movies about notable black warriors in history.

I know about King Arthur, William Wallace, and the great armies of Rome. But I want to see more movies about real black warriors in history.
 

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Toussaint Louverture in Power
1796–1801
August 1796
Primary electoral assemblies in Saint-Domingue are formed to elect colonial representatives to the legislative body in France. The outcome, facilitated by Louverture, results in positions for Laveaux and Sonthonax as deputies to the French legislature.
October 1796
Power struggles develop in the face of Louverture’s growing power. To solidify his position and strengthen his ties, Sonthonax appoints Louverture Commander-in-Chief of the army. Laveaux sails to France as deputy while Sonthonax reluctantly stays in Saint-Domingue to perform his duties as civil commissioner. He plans to depart the colony in eighteen months when his assignment ends.






25 August 1797
Louverture forces Sonthonax to return to France prematurely in a political move calculated to strengthen his position and gain favor in France. Sonthonax, despite wanting to leave the colony in the first place, finds himself forced out. As a result, instead of a normal and peaceful departure, the event becomes a humiliating and “forcible expulsion.” The remaining civil commissioners in the colony defer to Louverture, reaffirming that he is the most powerful figure in Saint-Domingue. Louverture misjudges, however, and instead of gaining favor abroad his audacity threatens the French and he is quickly seen as a major threat.
Fall 1797-
Winter 1798
Louverture’s army conquers most of British-occupied Saint-Domingue in the West. In the South, Rigaud’s army conquers the British at Jérémie.
March 1798
The British surrender their fight for Saint-Domingue and negotiate peace with Louverture. Louverture agrees to grant full amnesty to French citizens who didn’t fight with the British, all black troops enrolled in the British army, and to the émigrés who had abandoned the British prior to the opening of negotiations.
April 1798
France sends another official agent to Saint-Domingue upon the return of Sonthonax. Commissioner Hédouville arrives in Le Cap. His mission is to promulgate laws of the French legislative body, to “entrench respect for French national authority,” to prevent blacks from abusing their freedom, and to strictly enforce French law against the immigrants who first came to the colony in 1771.

In reaction to France’s mounting fear of Louverture and his black army, Hédouville tries to disempower Louverture by dividing him and Rigaud. Though he is unsuccessful, Hédouville manages to force Louverture’s resignation from the Directory, insulting him in France and arranging to replace him with three European generals. In addition, he fills the Saint-Domingue army with white soldiers, sending the black troops back to plantations. Slaves view Hédouville’s actions as an attempt to reinstate slavery and a new wave of insurrection breaks out.
13 June 1798
Louverture signs a secret alliance treaty with England and the United States.








October 1798
British forces evacuate Saint-Domingue as part of an agreement not to interfere with trade with France’s colonies. The French economy, depressed during its wars against Spain and England, reopens to colonial imports. At the same time merchant bourgeoisie lobby to reinstate the slave trade. Napoleon Bonaparte faces increasing pressure in France to bring down Louverture and take back Saint-Domingue.
23 October 1798
Hédouville missteps and tries to have Moïse arrested. Moïse, “the idol of the black workers” and Louverture’s nephew, manages to escape, issuing a call to arms to black workers throughout the plain. Louverture orders Dessalines and his troops to march on Le Cap to arrest Hédouville. Meanwhile mulattoes from around the colony join Rigaud in the South. Louverture concurrently strengthens and reorganizes his army in the North.
1799
Bonaparte’s overthrows the Directory in France, destroying the democratic republic and its anti-slavery principles. He declares himself Consul-for-Life, restores the pre-Revolution status quo of white rule, and turns his attention to France’s colonies.







July 1799
Civil war between Louverture and Rigaud breaks out: Rigaud takes over command of Léogâne and Jacmel while Louverture take over Petit-Goâve. This power struggle, fraught with issues of race and class, ultimately benefits the economic interests of the Americans and British, who seek to maximize their trade to the detriment of the French.

“From the vantage point of international politics, Saint Domingue was being manipulated as a piece on a chessboard, and the outcome of its internal struggles would be a key to the particular political and economic advantages that each of the three contending foreign powers intended to reap.”
April 1800
Louverture sends a military expedition into Spanish Santo Domingo to bring the territory under his rule. At the same time a mass uprising of armed black workers breaks out in the North in support of Louverture. Louverture’s negotiations with the Spanish ultimately fail but he successfully gains the masses’ popular support. Moïse marches in the South with 10,000 troops.
May 1800
Bonaparte sends a new commission to Saint-Domingue to confirm Louverture’s power in the colony and instate France’s most recent constitution. The new constitution proclaims that French colonies are to be governed by a set of “special laws” that take into the account the particularities of each territory. It states that Saint-Domingue is not to be represented in the French legislative body and will not be governed by laws for French citizens. The constitution does not address the colony’s general emancipation, but it is carefully worded to assure blacks of its inviolability.

Louverture, meanwhile, is focused on ending civil war in the South and disarming Rigaud and his army.
25 July 1800
Dessalines defeats Rigaud with the help of American vessels at the Jacmel port. Louverture exiles Rigaud to France and re-divides the areas of conflict. He grants general amnesty to every person who helped him fight Rigaud.








30 August 1800
Louverture is proclaimed the colony’s Supreme Commander-in-Chief. He and his revolutionary army of ex-slaves are “the uncontested dominant forces in Saint-Domingue” and he begins to impose what is essentially a military dictatorship. He has an army of 20,000 men to enforce his position as “absolute master of the island-colony."

Louverture institutes a new set of policies enforcing the traditional plantation system so that the colony’s shaken economy can produce exports for France. This is an extension and reinforcement of earlier work codes imposed by French civil commissioners such as Sonthonax, Polverel and Hédouville. The laborers see the policies as an effort to re-impose slavery. They further object to Louverture’s plan to import Africans to increase the Saint-Domingue’s labor force and buoy its economy.
28 January 1801
The governor of Spanish Santo Domingo cedes control of his territory to Louverture. To make his achievements permanent, Louverture forms a central assembly to write a new constitution for all of Hispaniola that abolishes slavery on the entire island. Louverture's achievements during his years in power include social reforms, structuring and organizing a new government, establishing courts of justice and building public schools.
8 July 1801
Louverture proclaims the new constitution in Saint-Domingue and is declared Governor General for life. The constitution, which is sent to France, sanctions the structures Louverture has already set in place, and emphasizes the bourgeois principles of the French Revolution.

Slavery is abolished forever and the constitution eliminates social distinctions of race and color, stating “all individuals be admitted to all public functions depending on their merit and without regard to race or color.” All individuals born in the colony were to be “equal, free, and citizens of France.” Voodoo is outlawed, mandatory labor is codified and Catholicism is established as the colony’s official religion. Black slaves, chafing against Louverture’s mandatory labor requirements, reject the measures through various forms of resistance.

Though the constitution essentially usurps the power of the French, Saint-Domingue still identifies as a French colony. The constitution attempts to establish Saint-Domingue as equal to France, asserting the colony’s autonomy while still trying to receive benefits from France. Though the constitution is not a formal declaration of independence, Bonaparte immediately recognizes it as a threat and rejects it. General Victor-Emmanuel Leclerc, Bonaparte’s brother-in-law, is sent to Saint-Domingue to re-impose slavery and the Code Noir.

By now planters are increasingly unhappy with the state of affairs in Saint-Domingue and are relying on Bonaparte to unseat Louverture, restore slavery, and facilitate the rise of the colony once more. Bonaparte is sympathetic, declaring that “Toussaint was no more than a rebel slave who needed to be removed, whatever the cost.”
19 July 1801
In the United States, President Thomas Jefferson reassures the French that he opposes independence in Saint-Domingue and pledges to support Napoleon’s agenda.
October 1801
A massive uprising against Louverture’s regime breaks out in the North and Moïse is rumored to be involved. In Limbé, west of Le Cap, 250 whites are killed and rebels occupy Gonaives with the goal of killing whites, uniting mulattoes and blacks and declaring Saint-Domingue independent. The rebels support popular land distribution and charge Louverture with exploiting the masses at France’s benefit. Moïse is known to oppose his uncle, and has refused to make his laborers work, saying “was not the executioner of his own color” and that “the blacks had not conquered their liberty to labor again under the rod and the whip on the properties of the white.”

Louverture has Moïse arrested, tried without defense, and shot. He brutally suppresses the uprising and 1,000 rebels are killed. The ruling class, split on Louverture’s actions, becomes further divided. Louverture’s left-wing support dwindles, considerably weakening his position. He becomes completely isolated from whites, mulattoes, and blacks, his former base of support.
https://library.brown.edu/haitihistory/8.html
 

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Colonial soldier with German women, 1919. In the period following World War I, French colonial troops were used as part of the Allied occupation of the German Rhineland, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles. Germ Hitler wrote about the Black Shame in Mein Kampf, decrying the"negrification' of Europe. His government would later sterilize 500 or so mixed-race children born of African servicemen and German women (the so-called Rhineland Bastards').
 

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Retropolis
When Portland banned blacks: Oregon’s shameful history as an ‘all-white’ state
DeNeen L. Brown
June 7, 2017



In 1844, all black people were ordered to get out of Oregon Country, the expansive territory under American rule that stretched from the Pacific coast to the Rocky Mountains.

Those who refused to leave could be severely whipped, the provisional government law declared, by “not less than twenty or more than thirty-nine stripes” to be repeated every six months until they left.

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Oregon Country’s provisional government, which was led by Peter Burnett, a former slaver holder who came west from Missouri by wagon train, passed the law in 1844 — 15 years before Oregon became a state. The law allowed slave holders to keep their slaves for a maximum of three years. After the grace period, all black people — those considered freed or enslaved — were required to leave Oregon Country. Black women were given three years to get out; black men were required to leave in two.

The law became known as the “Peter Burnett Lash Law.” Burnett, who also opposed Chinese migration to Oregon Country, would later become the first American governor of California.

The “Lash Law” was quickly amended and then repealed. No black people were ever lashed under the law.

But the act would become the first of three “exclusion laws” that shaped the Pacific Northwest, banning any additional black people from coming to Oregon Country. Those laws created what one African American professor calls “a very hostile environment” that has long made Oregon and its largest city,Portland,a stronghold for white supremacists like Jeremy Joseph Christian, the man accused of killing two men and severely wounding another on a light-rail train last month.

Few people are aware of Oregon’s history of blatant racism, including its refusal to ratify the 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution.


In 1848, the territorial government passed a law making it illegal for any “Negro or Mullatto” to live in Oregon Country. In 1850, under the Oregon Donation Land Act, “whites and half breed Indians” were granted 650 acres of land from the government. But any other person of color was excluded from claiming land in Oregon. In 1851, Jacob Vanderpool, the black owner of a saloon, restaurant and boarding home, was actually expelled from Oregon territory.

“The exclusion laws were primarily intended to prevent blacks from settling in Oregon, not to kick out those who were already here,” according to Salem Public Library records. But Vanderpool’s neighbor “reported him for the crime of being black in Oregon, and Judge Thomas Nelson gave him thirty days to leave the territory.”



Portland’s reputation as a progressive city is largely a myth, he said. Portland remains the whitest, large city in United States. According to a July 2015 Census report, the city of 612,206 people, was 77.6 percent white; and 5.8 percent black. Grady-Willis called it “a key site for Klan activity.”

This is the historical backdrop for the charges against Christian, 35, who allegedly verbally abused two women on the train, including one wearing a hijab, and then attacked the men who came to their aid.

During a brief court hearing Tuesday, Christian was unapologetic:

“You call it terrorism,” Christian said in court. “I call it patriotism.”

The man accused of murdering two men who tried to stop him from shouting religious slurs on a Portland train, appeared in court on May 30. (Reuters)
Oregon has a defiant history of resisting federal laws that gave black people rights.

Karen Gibson, associate professor in Portland State’s Toulan School of Urban Studies and Planning, said Oregon rescinded its initial ratification of the 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” including former slaves.

Oregon was one of just six states that refused to ratify the 15th Amendment, which gave black men the right to vote.

Oregon did not ratify the 15th amendment until 1959 — one hundred years after the state joined the Union. It was a symbolic adoption as part of its centennial celebration. It did not re-ratify the 14th amendment until 1973.

“Many of the white settlers who came here came for the Oregon Land Donation Act. This place was intentionally settled by whites for whites,” Gibson said.

“They did not want slavery here. They didn’t want land taken over by large plantations so they didn’t have to compete with bonded labor. But they also thought blacks were inferior. That is still here. White supremacy is about that: the beliefs that whites were supreme.”

Darrell Millner, professor emeritus in Portland State’s Black Studies Department, said many early Oregon settlers were opposed to slavery “not because of what it did to blacks but because of what it did to them. Slavery represented a competition they did not wish to work against.”

Millner said Oregon became a place where “many practices we associate with the Jim Crow South were legal here.” In the 1920s, Oregon had the largest Ku Klux Klan organization west of the Mississippi River. In 1922, Walter Pierce, a member of the Ku Klux Klan, was elected governor of Oregon. Pierce served as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1932 to 1942.


white supremacists who were members of the White Aryan Resistance who beat him with a baseball bat.

In 1990, the Southern Poverty Law Center and the Anti-Defamation League won a lawsuit against the White Aryan Resistance on behalf of Seraw’s family.

Millner said he has lived in Oregon 47 years. When he heard about the stabbings on the train last month he said he was disturbed but not surprised.

“It reinforced the subterranean awareness all people of color in Oregon have that something like that could happen to them at any time and in place,” he said. “That is reflective of what people of color in Oregon live with. It is on a subconscious level daily. You are constantly aware that is a possibility.”

https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/retropolis/wp/2017/06/07/when-portland-banned-blacks-oregons-shameful-history-as-an-all-white-state/?fbclid=IwAR1-8bK83ZBYHJXGuuKJN7Rr_npgjRpUmdSR8pTENQvmdIOQXrUnv_OxkNc&noredirect=on&utm_term=.d1252c7df33f
 

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BLACK “FOLK” MUSIC

“The Bone Player”, “The Banjo Player” and “The Violin / Fiddle Player” by William Mount circa 1856...

The majority of so called black people who settled in the American colonies were from the British Isles...

Immigrants from the British Isles played a stock of dance, folk, country and bluegrass tunes and other melodies from England, Ireland, and Scotland...

Many common fiddle tunes originated with so called black fiddlers...

The old-time fiddle repertoire began with reels and jigs that originated in the British Isles...

The terms reel and jig refer both to the type of dance and to the type of tune played to accompany the dance...

These tunes persisted in North America, and they became the basis for variations and new tunes that emerged in the United States...

The earliest minstrel shows were staged by caucasian male minstrels (traveling musicians) who, with their faces painted black, caricatured the singing and dancing of so called black people...






 

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A Century Later, a Little-Known Mass Hanging of Black Soldiers Still Haunts Us

100 years after one of the least-known and saddest chapters in American history, families of executed black soldiers have petitioned Trump for justice.

byJames Jeffrey

December 8, 2017

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After Hurricane Harvey devastated Houston in September, recovery and clean-up workers discovered that vandals hadsmearedred paint over a historical marker at the one-time location of Camp Logan, recently rededicated to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the Houston “riot” of 1917.

The paint covered the segment of the inscription that explained the history of the Third Battalion of the 24th United States Infantry, a predominantly black unit assigned to guard the camp during its construction shortly after the United States entered World War I.

Beneath the paint, the wordsread: “The Black Soldiers’ August 23, 1917, armed revolt in response to Houston’s Jim Crow Laws and police harassment resulted in the camps most publicized incident, the ‘Houston Mutiny and Riot of 1917.’” The Houstonriotgrew out of a confrontation between the soldiers and Houston city police, at the end of which sixteen white people were dead, including five policemen, with four soldiers also killed. It was one of the only riots in U.S. history in which more white people died than black people.


Historical marker at the former site of Camp Logan in Houston, recently vandalized with red paint.

At the resulting three courts martial, the first of which was the largest one in U.S. military history, a total of 118 enlisted black soldiers wereindicted, with 110 found guilty. Nineteen black men were executed by hanging and fifty-three received life sentences.

For a century, families of the executed soldiers have lived with the memories and loss. Relatives alive today grew up hearing their families talk about the soldiers’ fates, which served as the catalyst to learn more, and to work for justice to make amends.

“My family was upset when I started looking into it,” admits Jason Holt, a relative of Private Hawkins, one of the soldiers hanged.

Holt has a 100-year-old letter written by Private Hawkins to his mother the night before his execution, telling her not to be upset about him taking his “seat in heaven,” and of his innocence.

A 100-year-old letter from Private Hawkins to his mother the night before his execution tells her not to be upset about him taking his “seat in heaven,” and of his innocence.

“They sent those soldiers into the most hostile environment imaginable,” Charles Anderson, a relative of Sergeant William Nesbit, one of the hanged soldiers, told me over the the phone. “There was Jim Crow law, racist cops, racist civilians, laws against them being treated fairly in the street cars, while the workers building [Logan] camp hated [the soldiers’] presence.”

“The riot was a problem created by community policing in a hostile environment,” agrees Paul Matthews, founder of Houston’s Buffalo Soldiers National Museum, which examines the role of African-American soldiers during U.S. military history. “It’s up to people now to decide whether there are lessons relevant to the present.”

A majority of the soldiers posted at Camp Logan were raised in the South and familiar with segregation and Jim Crow laws. But as army servicemen, they expected fair treatment during their service in Houston. The police and public officials in that city viewed the presence of the black soldiers as a threat. Many Houstonians were concerned that if the black soldiers were shown the same respect as white soldiers, black residents might come to expect similar treatment.

Tensions grew between the troops guarding Camp Logan and the Houston police and locals. The sight of black men wearing uniforms and carrying guns incensed white residents. The soldiers themselves wereangeredby the “Whites Only” signs, being called the n-word by white Houstonians, and streetcar conductors demanding they sit in the rear.

“The men did not have a fair trial,” says a great-granddaughter of one of the policemen killed. “I have no doubt about the likelihood the men executed had nothing to do with the deaths.”

Then, in August, the police arrested a black soldier for interfering with the arrest of a black woman. When one of the battalion’s military police went to inquire about the arrested soldier, an argument ensued, resulting in the military policeman fleeing the police station amid shots, before being arrested himself.

Rumours—which turned out to be false—reached Camp Logan that the military man had been killed and that a white mob was approaching the camp. There was no mob, but the black soldiers had good reason to be fearful. The country was rife with racial tensions. Just two years later cities would erupt in unrest during the “Red Summer,” and in 1921 a white mob inTulsa, Oklahoma, murdered hundreds of innocent black people.

More than 100 soldiers grabbed rifles and headed into downtown Houston. During a two-hour rampage, the soldiers killed sixteen white residents, including five policemen. The next day martial law was declared in Houston, and the following day the unit was dispatched back to its base in New Mexico. The court martial soon followed.

“It was a dark, rainy night during the riot,” Anderson says. “At the trial the civilian witnesses couldn’t identify one soldier firing shots that killed people.”


Courtesy Charles Anderson

William Nesbit as a young man. According to court testimony from a 24th Infantry captain, Nesbit was "an excellent soldier; especially as to his loyalty to his officers."

Seven mutineers agreed to testify against the others in exchange for clemency.

Only one lawyer represented the sixty-three soldiers during the first court marital. The thirteen sentenced to death on November 28 were not given right to appeal. On December 11, they were taken by truck to the scaffold where thirteen ropes dangled from a crossbeam.

“The men did not have a fair trial,” says Sandra Hajtman, great-granddaughter of one of the policemen killed. “I have no doubt about the likelihood the men executed had nothing to do with the deaths.”

Only two white officers faced courts-martial, and they were released. Not a single white civilian was brought to trial.

In Houston, a rapidly growing city, knowledge of the event is mixed. Most newcomers know nothing about it. But that is changing.

“There was no public acknowledgment of it for a long time,” Lila Rakoczy, program coordinator of military sites and oral history programs at the Texas Historical Commission, said in a phone interview. “The centennial of the American entry into World War I has probably helped heighten awareness and encouraged people to talk about it.”

“The riot was a problem created by community policing in a hostile environment. It’s up to people now to decide whether there are lessons relevant to the present.”

-Paul Matthews, founder of Houston’s Buffalo Soldiers National Museum

Earlier this year, Angela Holder, a history professor at Houston Community College and the great niece of Corporal Jesse Moore, one of the soldiers hanged, helped lobby for gravestones from the Veterans Association for unmarked graves in a Houston cemetery of two soldiers killed during the riot. But more still remains to be done for the soldiers, the relatives say.

“We tried during the Obama presidency for a posthumous pardon and were on the list but missed out,” says Holder. “Perhaps we can approach a Texas politician or the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to help.”


Courtesy Angela Holder

Jesse Moore (right), the great uncle of Angela Holder.

Earlier this year petitions for the pardonswere sentto the Trump White House. The relatives are still awaiting a response as the 100th anniversary of the day of execution approaches.

According to a written account by one of the soldiers overseeing the execution, the thirteen men executed on December 11, 1917, showed great bravery that moved all those watching. None made any attempt to resist or even speak as they were taken from the trucks to the scaffold.

“Not a word out of any of you men now!” Sergeant William Nesbit proclaimed to his men in his final living moment.

James Jeffrey is a British journalist who divides his time between America, East Africa, and the UK. His writing appears in various international media.


https://progressive.org/dispatches/a-century-later-a-little-known-mass-hanging-of-black-soldier-171208/?fbclid=IwAR2e4T4V_19bCR2_uDQnRdhM_cNnvj3tdCKqR9kWHCbcgHtyivaHwXqkwYA
 

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The silencing of genocide: Tartaria

While America is planning to kill off its Native AfroAmerican Hebrew population… Russia has been preparing for years to kill off its Tartarian population.


White Supremacy is planning a Double Genocide.
I have documented previously that the US government is aware that Russian/Soviet government (Bolshevikism/White Supremecy) has been actively erasing the history and culture of Tartary.

For more info click the Tartary hashtags below.

Erasing the History and Culture of a people is the Modus Operandi and Pre-Cursor of Genocide
And that is exactly what America has been doing to AfroAmericans, the original Hebrews.
AfroAmerican Hebrews today don’t even know what their nationality is.

We don’t even know that it’s OUR Hebrew ancestors who built the pyramids. White Supremecy has taught you that “Blacks” came over on slaveships and we had no culture when actually the opposite is the reality.
Africa was a principality— a colony. The Hebrew race actually started in the America’s.

They’ve been lying to us —about us— in the history books.
Niggahs nowadays don’t even suspect that there are more pyramids and monolithic/megalithic structures in the -Americas than in Africa.

Ghengis Khan built the nation of Tartaria
Ghengis Kahn, and Tartaria are all Mamites, same as the Black Hebrews. Tartaria also included Germany, Hungary, Finland, Turkey, Tibet and Japan.
Ghengis Khan and Kublah Khan fought so many wars with white Supremecy that it was they who built the Great Wall of China to defend against the evil race of white Supremecy coming out of the Caucasus mountains where the evil Ashkenazi sons of Japheth got their start.
 

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Marcus Garvey (right) with George O. Marke (left) and Prince Kojo Tovalou-Houenou
Creator:
Van Der Zee, James, 1886-1983
Published/Created:
1924
Topics:
Photography -- United States -- 20th century -- (YVRC)
Culture:
African-American
American
Accession Number:
230896
Genre:
photographs (AAT)
Format:
Image
Rights:
The use of this image may be subject to the copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) or to site license or other rights management terms and conditions. The person using the image is liable for any infringement
Access Restrictions:
Yale Community Only
Source Note:
Willis-Braithwaite, Van Der Zee, 1993
Yale Collection:
Visual Resources Collection
Digital Collection:
Visual Resources Collection
Original Repository:
Private Collection
Local Record Number:
Portfolio Item ID: 76275
OID:
374641
PID:
digcoll:1879023
 

water

Transparent, tasteless, odorless
BGOL Investor
took slaves

created an economy

brought back weapons of destruction: guns, rum, beer to keep the cycle going



 

neptunes007

Rising Star
BGOL Investor



The chilling details of Patrice Lumumba’s assassination and how he was dissolved in acid

January 17, 2019 at 03:44 pm | History


Ismail Akwei | Head of Content

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January 17, 2019 at 03:44 pm | History

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Ismail Akwei is the Head of Content at Face2face Africa. He is an international journalist (digital/ broadcast media), human rights advocate, pan-Africanist, tech enthusiast and a lover of art and culture. He has worked with multinational media companies in three African countries and has over a decade's experience in journalism.



Since January 17, 1961, no one has been held accountable for the brutal murder of Congo’s independence leader and first prime minister Patrice Lumumba who was shot dead with two of his ministers, Joseph Okito and Maurice Mpolo.

However, all fingers point to multinational perpetrators who sanctioned the elimination of one of Africa’s bravest politicians and independence heroes who stood his ground against colonizers.



He led the Democratic Republic of Congo to independence on June 30, 1960, after the country was passed on from King Leopold II, who took control of it as his private property in the 1880s, to Belgium in 1908 as a colony.

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Lumumba was inspired by the independence movement of Africa after attending the All-African Peoples’ Conference in Ghana in 1958. This spurred him on to organize nationalist rallies in his country resulting in deadly protests that got him arrested and later released to negotiate Congo’s independence.

Independence came with lots of problems including a political divide and an unapologetic Belgium led by King Baudouin who minced no words during the independence declaration while praising his predecessor, the brutish King Leopold II.

“Don’t compromise the future with hasty reforms, and don’t replace the structures that Belgium hands over to you until you are sure you can do better. Don’t be afraid to come to us. We will remain by your side and give you advice,” he said.

An outraged Lumumba rather gave a damning speech highlighting “humiliating slavery, which was imposed upon us by force.” This heightened Belgium’s disinterest in Lumumba whose government was already being opposed by his political rival and president Joseph Kasavubu.

Only three months into the new and independent Congo, soldiers mutinied against Belgian commanders who refused to leave and some regions, including the mineral-rich Katanga and South Kasai, rebelled against the central government and seceded with the backing of Belgian troops who were sent to protect their interests.

The Congolese government called for the United Nation’s help and a resolution was passed by the Security Council calling on Belgium to withdraw its troops. UN peacekeepers were sent into the Congo to restore order and “use force in the last resort” to secure the country’s territories.

However, Belgium did not leave and the UN Secretary-General Dag Hammarskjöld failed to provide the Congolese government with military assistance as demanded by Lumumba and sanctioned by the Security Council. He also ignored the prime minister’s appeal to send troops to Katanga but rather chose to negotiate with secession leader Moise Tshombe.

Hammarskjöld died in a plane crash on his way to meet Tshombe in September 1961, winning him a posthumously Nobel peace prize. Meanwhile, the country was in turmoil and Lumumba got no help from the West and the United Nations. He called on Russia and the Soviet Union sent weapons and “technical advisors” which incensed the United States.

The U.S. was a strong ally of Belgium and had a stake in Congo’s uranium. It is suspected to have planned an assassination as disclosed by a source in the book, Death in the Congo, written by Emmanuel Gerard and published in 2015.

U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower was reported to have given the order without any discussion. Lawrence Devlin, CIA station chief in Congo at the time, told the BBC in 2000 that a CIA plan to lace Lumumba’s toothpaste with poison was never carried out.

By September, the Congolese President Kasavubu dismissed Lumumba as Prime Minister after receiving a telegram from Belgian Prime Minister Gaston Eyskens. Lumumba also declared Kasavubu deposed. This ushered in the takeover by army chief Colonel Mobutu Sese Seko who placed Lumumba under house arrest and guarded by his troops and the United Nations troops.

Lumumba escaped in late November with his wife and baby son hidden in the back of a car leaving his residence. They headed towards the east where he had loyal followers in Kisangani (then Stanleyville). He engaged villagers on his way and on the evening of December 2 as they waited for a ferry to cross the Sankuru River, Mobutu’s forces appeared.

He was captured and another plea to the United Nations to save him fell on deaf ears. He was flown to Léopoldville (now Kinshasa), where he was humiliated in public in the presence of journalists, UN officials and his wife, Pauline.

Mobutu ordered his detention at a military prison at Thysville, a hundred miles from Léopoldville. For six weeks, Lumumba was kept in cells and that’s where he wrote letters to the United Nations for help and to his wife to calm her nerves.

While Lumumba’s speeches from prison were creating confusion, Belgian Minister of African Affairs Harold d’Aspremont Lynden was putting pressure on the government to move him from Thysville where he could be freed by his supporters.

Lynden later insisted on Lumumba being transferred to Katanga despite a discussion by the Belgian parliament against the decision that will result in his death, cites Belgian sociologist and historian, Ludo De Witte, who made public the gory details of Lumumba’s death in a book published in Dutch in 1999.

Lumumba and his two former ministers were flown to Katanga on January 17 while being beaten so badly that the pilot warned the violence was threatening the flight, says De Witte.

They arrived at the Elizabethville (now Lubumbashi) airport and taken into custody by Katangese police and military under the supervision of Belgian forces. They were driven to a colonial villa owned by a wealthy Belgian, Villa Brouwe, and the beatings continued by both the Congolese and Belgian forces.


LUMUMBA…FILE TO GO WITH STORY SLUGGED BELGIUM CONGO LUMUMBA– Hands tied behind his back, deposed Congo ex-premier Patrice Lumumba (center) leaves a plane at Leopoldville airport, Dec. 2, 1960, under guard of Congolese soldiers loyal to Col. Joseph Mobutu. European Parliament opened an investigation Tuesday May 2, 2000 into possible government involvement in the 1961 killing of Lumumba, whose death shocked the world during the months following Congolese independence from Belgium. (AP-Photo/File)
By that evening, they were semi-conscious and had been visited by Katangese cabinet ministers and President Tshombe himself. Later around 10, a decision was taken on their fate and they were dragged from Villa Brouwe into a nearby bush where a firing squad awaited them.

The execution was commanded by Belgian Captain Julien Gat and Belgian Police Commissioner Frans Verschurre, who had overall command, discloses De Witte in his book based on documents he discovered in the Belgian archives. They were shot separately by a big tree as President Tshombe and two of his cabinet ministers looked on. The bodies were quickly thrown into shallow graves.

To conceal their crimes the next morning of January 18, the Interior Minister Godfried Munongo called a senior Belgian policeman, Gerard Soete, to his office and ordered that the bodies disappeared.

“You destroy them, you make them disappear. How you do it, it doesn’t interest me. All I want is that it happens that they disappear. Once it is done nobody will talk about it. Finished,” Soete recalled Munongo’s orders.

Soete said he and another helper exhumed the corpses and “hacked them in pieces and put them into the acid. As far as our acid because we had two bottles like that of acid, big bottles, but we hadn’t got enough so we burned what we could in those bottles. For the rest I know that my helper made a fire and put them in and we destroyed everything.

“We were there two days. We did things an animal wouldn’t do. And that’s why we were drunk, stone drunk. We couldn’t do things like that. Cut your own, your own – no, no, no. Nobody could say now, today, it’s there, it happened. That’s impossible, you couldn’t,” Soete was quoted in a BBC documentary, Who Killed Lumumba?, which aired in 2000 based on accounts from De Witte’s book published in English in June 2001.

Just as planned, Lumumba’s death was announced a month later on February 13, 1961. Interior Minister Munongo announced that the three prisoners killed their guards and escaped in a getaway car before they were recognized by villagers, who beat them to death.

The truth was hidden despite international protests at Belgian embassies nationwide until 1999 when Ludo De Witte’s book titled, The Assassination of Lumumba, presented new evidence taken from documents long hidden in official archives and interviews of surviving witnesses.

The Belgian Parliament established a commission of enquiry three months after the book was published to determine the circumstances of the assassination of Patrice Lumumba and if the Belgian government was involved.

The report was presented after 18 months of investigation in 2002 and then published as a book in 2004 for the public. It concluded that Belgium had a moral responsibility in the assassination of Lumumba and that it “acted under pressure from the Belgian public, which had heard for days about violence against Belgian citizens in Congo.”

It said there were plans to kill Lumumba and the Belgian government showed little respect for the sovereign status of the Congolese government. The commission confirmed that secret funds (about $8 million today) were used to finance the policy against the Lumumba government by the Ministry of African Affairs, reports the Brussels Times.

It, however, stated that execution was carried out by Kantangese authorities in the presence of the Belgian officials and there was no evidence to prove that Belgium was part of the decision-making to kill Lumumba.


The Belgian government admitted to having had “undeniable responsibility in the events that led to Lumumba’s death” but did not take full responsibility and issued a public pardon of the Belgians involved in the assassination of Lumumba.

The foreign minister at the time, Louis Michel, said “The government feels it should extend to the family of Patrice Lumumba … and to the Congolese people, its profound and sincere regrets and its apologies for the pain inflicted upon them.”

This was accepted by Lumumba’s son, Francois Lumumba, who later filed court cases against Belgium for hiding its role in the assassination of his father.

In January 2016, it was reported that a tooth of Lumumba was confiscated in the former home of police officer Gerard Soete who died in June 2000 during the parliamentary enquiry.

In his 1978 novel, the Belgian who helped dissolve Lumumba’s body in acid described the taking of two teeth, two fingers and bullets from the body, reports Brussels Times. He later declared that he had thrown them into the sea.


https://face2faceafrica.com/article/the-chilling-details-of-patrice-lumumbas-assassination-and-how-he-was-dissolved-in-acid
Never knew this. After watching Goodbye Uncle Tom and reading the history of the Congo, I will need a minute before I talk to Anglo-Saxons
 

Lexx Diamond

Art Lover ❤️ Sex Addict®™
Staff member




kemetic-dreams
King Bayano, the Mandinka king who escaped slavery in the 1600s and fought off the Spanish for several years
It is recorded that the first set of slaves arrived in the Americas in the 17th century specifically 1619 when 19 Africans were brought to James Town, the British establishment in Virginia, by Dutch travellers marking the start of the Transatlantic slave trade in all of the Americas. However, it remains a debatable fact to date.

Perhaps it was the very first time Africans stepped foot into what is now the United States of America but several findings have come to show that it wasn’t the first time they were entering the Americas or even North America.

Africans being captured into slavery goes as far back as the 16th century. According to the Smithsonian, in 1526, enslaved Africans were part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost on the North American coast in present-day South Carolina. Also, as early as May 1616, blacks from the West Indies were already at work in Bermuda providing expert knowledge about the cultivation of tobacco.



MORE ABOUT THIS
Panama is one of the first countries in the Americas to have Africans work as slaves. They were brought in by the Spanish to transport goods at long distances and work in gold mines in Veraguas and Darien. By 1531, the first slave rebellion had occurred in the country. Panama was home to one of the biggest slave markets in 1610 known as the House of Genovese.

In 1552, King Bayano was captured in his village in West Africa en route to Panama along with several other people from the village where he ruled. While some sources indicate that Bayano traces to the Mandinka Muslim community of West Africa, another source indicates that he was of Yoruba origin, however, it is more possible that he was indeed a Mandinka king due to the fact that the Spanish and Portuguese first arrived in West Africa around the areas where the Mandinka lived.
Luck was on the side of King Bayano and the 400 captives when the ship that carried them sank very close to Panama enabling them to escape. The freed Africans elected Bayano who was already a royal as their king and leader and he immediately trained them for war against the Spanish who were plotting to return them into slavery.

Later in 1552, King Bayano led what is now described as the largest rebellion in Panama which is now known as the Bayano Wars. The brave leader led his army to fight off the Spanish colonists. Due to the strength of his military, the Spanish were unable to defeat the Africans who for several years lived as free maroons and developed their community in the areas around the Bayano River and Bayano Caves together with the native Indians in the area.
It is from Panama that the word Maroon originated. The word derives from the Spanish word cimarrones (wild ones) which is what the Spanish called the runaway slaves.

During his reign and battle with the Spanish, King Bayano succeeded in taking control of the trade units of the Spanish after several attacks at slave markets and points. He freed several enslaved people and managed to take over trade by monopolizing trade with Peru in food, gold and silver.

Seeing that they needed external help to defeat the King and his people, the Spanish sought help from the Spanish crown which sent an army troop to fight King Bayano but again the king defeated them. It was during the last fight that the then Spanish governor Pedro de Ursua decided to sign a peace treaty with the Maroon leader for trade. But the treaty was a trap for King Bayano.

According to the Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion, King Bayano and his men went unarmed in the name of peace to sign the treaty and were poisoned by the Spanish. While several of his men managed to escape to inform the people, King Bayano and a few of his men were taken, hostage.

After negotiations and signing of the Peace Treaty, King Bayano was exiled to Peru and later Spain where he lived until he died. His exile caused the Second Bayano Wars which ended in 1582 but the Maroons in Panama managed to defend their community.

Despite being exiled and never allowed to return home, King Bayano from Africa holds a significant place in Afro-Panamanian history with a lake, river and cave, all in his name. He is also considered the father of resistance. Other versions of his name include Ballano and Vaino.
 

Lexx Diamond

Art Lover ❤️ Sex Addict®™
Staff member
I'll never stop reposting this....











blackourstory
WHY DIDN’T THEY TEACH YOU ABOUT THIS IN HISTORY CLASS?

The Christian Movement for Life, aka,MOVE

  • a pro-green, vegan, anti-technology group
  • living in a house in West Philadelphia
  • BOMBED by the Philly PD, from the air, on May 13, 1985
  • YES, 1985!!!
  • the city killed 11 people (5 children), burned down 65 homes in a Black, middle-class, West Philly neighborhood, and caused $50,000,000.00 damage- all to “evict” the group and recover two shotguns
  • You know of Mumia Abu-Jamal (3rd photo from bottom) but did you know he was affiliated with MOVE?
  • Ramona Africa(2nd photo from bottom) and one child survived
  • MOVE leader John Africawas murdered (subsequently)
This was not the ONLY time an American city was bombed, btw. The first time, it was ALSO whites bombing Black people. And you want to talk about TERRORISM???


 

neptunes007

Rising Star
BGOL Investor




kemetic-dreams
King Bayano, the Mandinka king who escaped slavery in the 1600s and fought off the Spanish for several years
It is recorded that the first set of slaves arrived in the Americas in the 17th century specifically 1619 when 19 Africans were brought to James Town, the British establishment in Virginia, by Dutch travellers marking the start of the Transatlantic slave trade in all of the Americas. However, it remains a debatable fact to date.

Perhaps it was the very first time Africans stepped foot into what is now the United States of America but several findings have come to show that it wasn’t the first time they were entering the Americas or even North America.

Africans being captured into slavery goes as far back as the 16th century. According to the Smithsonian, in 1526, enslaved Africans were part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost on the North American coast in present-day South Carolina. Also, as early as May 1616, blacks from the West Indies were already at work in Bermuda providing expert knowledge about the cultivation of tobacco.



MORE ABOUT THIS
Panama is one of the first countries in the Americas to have Africans work as slaves. They were brought in by the Spanish to transport goods at long distances and work in gold mines in Veraguas and Darien. By 1531, the first slave rebellion had occurred in the country. Panama was home to one of the biggest slave markets in 1610 known as the House of Genovese.

In 1552, King Bayano was captured in his village in West Africa en route to Panama along with several other people from the village where he ruled. While some sources indicate that Bayano traces to the Mandinka Muslim community of West Africa, another source indicates that he was of Yoruba origin, however, it is more possible that he was indeed a Mandinka king due to the fact that the Spanish and Portuguese first arrived in West Africa around the areas where the Mandinka lived.
Luck was on the side of King Bayano and the 400 captives when the ship that carried them sank very close to Panama enabling them to escape. The freed Africans elected Bayano who was already a royal as their king and leader and he immediately trained them for war against the Spanish who were plotting to return them into slavery.

Later in 1552, King Bayano led what is now described as the largest rebellion in Panama which is now known as the Bayano Wars. The brave leader led his army to fight off the Spanish colonists. Due to the strength of his military, the Spanish were unable to defeat the Africans who for several years lived as free maroons and developed their community in the areas around the Bayano River and Bayano Caves together with the native Indians in the area.
It is from Panama that the word Maroon originated. The word derives from the Spanish word cimarrones (wild ones) which is what the Spanish called the runaway slaves.

During his reign and battle with the Spanish, King Bayano succeeded in taking control of the trade units of the Spanish after several attacks at slave markets and points. He freed several enslaved people and managed to take over trade by monopolizing trade with Peru in food, gold and silver.

Seeing that they needed external help to defeat the King and his people, the Spanish sought help from the Spanish crown which sent an army troop to fight King Bayano but again the king defeated them. It was during the last fight that the then Spanish governor Pedro de Ursua decided to sign a peace treaty with the Maroon leader for trade. But the treaty was a trap for King Bayano.

According to the Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion, King Bayano and his men went unarmed in the name of peace to sign the treaty and were poisoned by the Spanish. While several of his men managed to escape to inform the people, King Bayano and a few of his men were taken, hostage.

After negotiations and signing of the Peace Treaty, King Bayano was exiled to Peru and later Spain where he lived until he died. His exile caused the Second Bayano Wars which ended in 1582 but the Maroons in Panama managed to defend their community.

Despite being exiled and never allowed to return home, King Bayano from Africa holds a significant place in Afro-Panamanian history with a lake, river and cave, all in his name. He is also considered the father of resistance. Other versions of his name include Ballano and Vaino.
Long Live Bayano!!!
 

neptunes007

Rising Star
BGOL Investor




kemetic-dreams
King Bayano, the Mandinka king who escaped slavery in the 1600s and fought off the Spanish for several years
It is recorded that the first set of slaves arrived in the Americas in the 17th century specifically 1619 when 19 Africans were brought to James Town, the British establishment in Virginia, by Dutch travellers marking the start of the Transatlantic slave trade in all of the Americas. However, it remains a debatable fact to date.

Perhaps it was the very first time Africans stepped foot into what is now the United States of America but several findings have come to show that it wasn’t the first time they were entering the Americas or even North America.

Africans being captured into slavery goes as far back as the 16th century. According to the Smithsonian, in 1526, enslaved Africans were part of a Spanish expedition to establish an outpost on the North American coast in present-day South Carolina. Also, as early as May 1616, blacks from the West Indies were already at work in Bermuda providing expert knowledge about the cultivation of tobacco.



MORE ABOUT THIS
Panama is one of the first countries in the Americas to have Africans work as slaves. They were brought in by the Spanish to transport goods at long distances and work in gold mines in Veraguas and Darien. By 1531, the first slave rebellion had occurred in the country. Panama was home to one of the biggest slave markets in 1610 known as the House of Genovese.

In 1552, King Bayano was captured in his village in West Africa en route to Panama along with several other people from the village where he ruled. While some sources indicate that Bayano traces to the Mandinka Muslim community of West Africa, another source indicates that he was of Yoruba origin, however, it is more possible that he was indeed a Mandinka king due to the fact that the Spanish and Portuguese first arrived in West Africa around the areas where the Mandinka lived.
Luck was on the side of King Bayano and the 400 captives when the ship that carried them sank very close to Panama enabling them to escape. The freed Africans elected Bayano who was already a royal as their king and leader and he immediately trained them for war against the Spanish who were plotting to return them into slavery.

Later in 1552, King Bayano led what is now described as the largest rebellion in Panama which is now known as the Bayano Wars. The brave leader led his army to fight off the Spanish colonists. Due to the strength of his military, the Spanish were unable to defeat the Africans who for several years lived as free maroons and developed their community in the areas around the Bayano River and Bayano Caves together with the native Indians in the area.
It is from Panama that the word Maroon originated. The word derives from the Spanish word cimarrones (wild ones) which is what the Spanish called the runaway slaves.

During his reign and battle with the Spanish, King Bayano succeeded in taking control of the trade units of the Spanish after several attacks at slave markets and points. He freed several enslaved people and managed to take over trade by monopolizing trade with Peru in food, gold and silver.

Seeing that they needed external help to defeat the King and his people, the Spanish sought help from the Spanish crown which sent an army troop to fight King Bayano but again the king defeated them. It was during the last fight that the then Spanish governor Pedro de Ursua decided to sign a peace treaty with the Maroon leader for trade. But the treaty was a trap for King Bayano.

According to the Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion, King Bayano and his men went unarmed in the name of peace to sign the treaty and were poisoned by the Spanish. While several of his men managed to escape to inform the people, King Bayano and a few of his men were taken, hostage.

After negotiations and signing of the Peace Treaty, King Bayano was exiled to Peru and later Spain where he lived until he died. His exile caused the Second Bayano Wars which ended in 1582 but the Maroons in Panama managed to defend their community.

Despite being exiled and never allowed to return home, King Bayano from Africa holds a significant place in Afro-Panamanian history with a lake, river and cave, all in his name. He is also considered the father of resistance. Other versions of his name include Ballano and Vaino.
So how was this king and his people initially captured, was it by neighboring kindoms who helped the Spanish to secure goods and trade from the Spanish colonialists?
 

WorldEX

Rising Star
BGOL Investor
The five-time Olympic medalist and 14-time world champion completed the move on Friday at the 2019 US Gymnastics Championships in Kansas City, Missouri.
Earlier in the day, Biles became the first woman to attempt a triple-double -- two flips and three twists in the air -- in competition during the floor exercise. But the gymnast just missed the landing, falling forward.
Biles expressed frustrations after her miss, saying she was "pissed off," according to Team USA.
But just a few hours later, she completed the double-double dismount, so it doesn't seem as though the star is letting anything hold her back.
Biles is currently in first place at the two-day competition, almost two points ahead of the second-place contender.



https://www.cnn.com/2019/08/10/us/simone-biles-double-double-trnd/index.html
 

Lexx Diamond

Art Lover ❤️ Sex Addict®™
Staff member
Black family finds a cop’s KKK application in new house they’re trying to buy



In 2009, a white cop killed a black man during a traffic stop. The Judge cleared him of any wrongdoing. Now, in 2019, a black family who was hunting for houses found a KKK application inside one of the houses. The house belongs to that same white cop who killed the black man in 2009.


Rob Mathis and Reyna Mathis were hunting for houses to purchase together.

Mathis and his wife were trying to purchase a house that would give them enough space for their children and grandchildren, and accommodate their future. They thought the five-bedroom home they viewed on Wednesday in Holton, Michichigan, in a small town of fewer than 3000 people would do well, and were ready to make an offer.

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But their ideas of the town and the house changed when upon entry, they found a Confederate flag placemat on the dining room table, to which Mathis reacted:

“I thought to myself, ‘Wouldn’t it be funny if this was a Klansman’s house?’”

When the family and their real estate agent went upstairs to check out the bedrooms, Mathis and his son saw a plague that contained a yellow aged document. When they approached it they noticed it was an application to join the KKK.

Mathis wrote in a post on social media:



Mathis told MLive in an interview:

“It was basically also telling me that he only [wanted] whites only to purchase his home. People who had that type of hate in their heart, he wanted those people.”

Mathis’ wife Reyna said that she and her family collect memorabilia from the Detroit Red Wings and the University of Michigan because they are proud of those affiliations, and can’t understand how he would keep those items if he “doesn’t associate with them” as he said.

Reyna said:

“I was just angry, and my daughter started asking questions and she’s only 12,”

In response to Mathis’ post, the Local government made a public post stating:

“after a social media post was brought to our attention accusing an officer of being in possession of certain items associated with a white supremacy group.”

They stated that he was:

immediately placed on administrative leave, pending a thorough investigation.

The homeowner is identified as a 48-year-old white officer named Charles Anderson.



Anderson happens to be an officer who was pursuing 23-year-old Julius Johnson during a traffic stop on September 23, 2009.

According to the investigation in 2009, Johnson allegedly beat Anderson in the head, which Anderson said prompted him to pull out his gun and shoot Johnson because he was in “Fear for his life”.

Tunisia Phillips, Johnson’s sister, told investigators that she heard her brother beg for his life before Anderson shot him. The prosecutor later cleared Anderson of wrongdoing and then charged his sister Tunisia Phillips with “lying” to police. People took to the streets to protest Johnson’s killing.

Eric Hood, the president of the Muskegon County chapter of the NAACP, has now called for a thorough investigation of Anderson and how he deals with Black people, and other people of color. He stated:

“We want a thorough investigation to be sure that when he goes out there and puts on that uniform and performs his duties as an officer that he’s being fair and impartial,”

There’s no word yet on whether or not the 2009 investigation will be reopened.
 
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